Answer in Brief
Answer the following:
Explain the physical factors affecting location of industries.
Introduction: The place where conversion of products obtained from primary activities into final products takes place, is called ‘factory’. The location of industry is very important thing in this process. The required raw material of the industry highly affects on the location of the industry. The characteristics of raw material and also finished product affect the location of industry. e.g. Perishable raw material required industries will be located in the source of raw material areas. e.g. sugar industries.
- Climate: Climate, raw material, water, power, labour, land and transport are important physical factors deciding the location of industry. Extreme climate like too hot, too cold, dry and very humid climate are not suitable for industries. Generally, industries develop in areas of moderate climate.
- Availability of raw material: Availability of raw material is essential for the development of industries. Industries using perishable, heavy, bulky and weight-losing raw materials are located in the areas of source of raw materials. For example, sugar mills near sugarcane growing areas. Most of the industries require lot of water for processing, like cooling, washing etc. Such industries are located near lakes, rivers or other water bodies. For example, many industries are located around Great Lakes in USA.
- Water and power supply: Almost all the industries require plenty of water for various processes like cooling, smelting, washing etc. Thus, such industries are located near the banks of rivers or near lakes. Coal, oil, electricity are indispensable energy resources in running any type of industry. Coal is heavy and bulky.
- Labour: Labour is another important factor deciding location of industries. Availability of skilled, semi-skilled and cheap labour is very important to work in industries. Hence, we generally find labour colonies are located where skilled and cheap labour is available.
- Transportation: Transport facilities are essential for transport of raw materials and finished products. Low cost transport is the key factor in the development of industries. Industries develop in the areas, where transportation network is well developed. For example, many industries are developed along Trans-Siberian railway line in Russia.
- Site or availability of land: Site requirements for industrial development are of considerable significance. Location should be generally flat and well-served by adequate transport facilities. Large areas are required to build factories. Earlier, industries were concentrated near urban areas but now because of non-availability of land and high prices, there is a tendency to set up industries in rural areas. For example, Lote Parshuram industrial area in Chiplun and Chakan in Pune.
Concept: Physical Factors Affecting Secondary Economic Activities
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