Answer the following:
Explain the physical factors affecting location of industries.
Climate, raw material, water, power, labour, land and transport are important physical factors deciding the location of industry. Extreme climate like too hot, too cold, dry and very humid climate are not suitable for industries. Generally, industries develop in areas of moderate climate.
Availability of raw material is essential for the development of industries. Industries using perishable, heavy, bulky and weight-losing raw materials are located in the areas of source of raw materials. For example, sugar mills near sugarcane growing areas.
Most of the industries require lot of water for processing, like cooling, washing ete. Such industries are located near lakes, rivers or other water bodies. For example, many industries are located around Great Lakes in USA.
Labour is another important factor deciding location of industries. Availability of skilled, semi-skilled and cheap labour is very important to work in industries. Hence, we generally find labour colonies are located where skilled and cheap labour is available.
Transport facilities are essential for transport of raw materials and finished products. Low cost transport is the key factor in the development of industries. Industries develop in the areas, where transportation network is well developed. For example, many industries are developed along Trans-Siberian railway line in Russia.
Industrial development need huge land for the construction of industrial units. Industries develop where cheap, plain and extensive land is available.
Industries need power supply, main sources of power supply are coal, oil, electricity and now a days wind energy, solar energy etc. Industries locate near coal mines, or availability of electricity. For example, industries concentrated around coal mining area of Ruhr region of Germany or industries concentrated near Khopoli hydro power station.