Maharashtra State BoardHSC Arts 12th Board Exam
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Answer in detail: Explain the physical factors affecting distribution of population. - Geography

Answer in Brief

Answer in detail:

Explain the physical factors affecting the distribution of the population.

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Physical factors affecting the distribution of population are:
(i) Relief
(ii) Climate
(iii) Availability of water
(iv) Soils
(i) Relief
- Distribution of population is greatly affected by relied features.
- Generally, flat plains or gently sloping lands are densely populated.
- Plains are suitable for agricultural activities.
- In these areas, it is easier to construct roads and railways and the development of industries and trade. As a result, many people are attracted to plains and they become densely populated. For example, the Ganga plains are thickly populated.
- On the other hand, in mountainous and hilly areas density of the population is low. This is because in such areas agricultural development is difficult.
- The construction and development of transport facilities are very difficult and costly too. Such areas are inaccessible.
- Due to inaccessibility, the movement of goods and people is restricted. Therefore, mountainous and hilly areas are thinly populated. For example, the northeastern states of India have less population due to hilly and mountainous relief.
(ii) Climate
- Climate is the most important factor of all the factors influencing the distribution of the population.
- Areas having a very hot or very cold climate, heavy rainfall is very uncomfortable for human settlement. Such areas are thinly populated.
- For example, polar regions where Eskimos and Lapps live are sparsely populated due to the extremely cold climate. The Sahara Desert is sparsely populated due to the extremely hot climate.
- On the other hand, areas with an equable climate, that is climate having not much seasonal variation attract people. People feel comfortable to stay in these areas.
- For example, coastal areas have dense populations because of equable climate and wide scope for the development of agriculture, industries, and trade.
(iii) Availability of water
- Water is the most important factor affecting the distribution of the population. It is the most essential factor for all human activities.
- Therefore, more people live in areas where potable and sufficient water is available. As a result of this most of the river valleys are densely populated I .s. Nile river valley.
- Even in desert areas there is more population near oasis due to the availability of water.
(iv) Soil
- Fertile soils are most important for the development of agriculture.
- The areas having fertile alluvial soil have developed intensive agriculture and support a large number of people and hence they are densely populated, e.g., Gangetic Plain, Plains of Mississippi, Irrawaddy, and the Yangtze, etc.
- Similarly, in the areas having very fertile black cotton soil or regur soil, agriculture is well developed, and hence such areas are densely populated.
- The volcanic soil is very fertile hence, it supports agriculture. Therefore, the slopes of volcanic mountains have a dense population. For example, volcanic mountain slopes of Java island.

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Balbharati Geography 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 1 Population : Part - 1
Exercise Q.4 | Q 1 | Page 11
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