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Answer the Following Questions Related to Sex Determination in Human Beings - Science and Technology 2

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Answer in Brief

Answer the following questions related to sex determination in human beings:
i. What is sex chromosome?
ii. How many pairs of chromosomes are present in human beings?
iii. How is the sex of the human offspring determined?
iv. Draw a diagram depicting sex determination in man.

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Solution

i. The sex chromosome is a chromosome involved in sex determination.

ii. 23 pairs of chromosomes are present in human beings. Of these, 22 pairs are of the autosomes and 1 pair is of the sex chromosomes.

iii. Determination of sex in human offspring:

  1. In human beings, the male possesses 44 autosomes and a pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, XY, while the female possesses 44 autosomes and a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes, XX.
  2. At the time of gamete formation, meiosis occurs.
  3. The male parent produces X-bearing and Y-bearing gametes or sperms. The female parent produces only X-bearing gametes or eggs.
  4. During reproduction, the combination of one X-bearing gamete from the male with one X-bearing gamete from the female results in offspring with the genetic constitution XX. The child produced is a female or a daughter.
  5. The combination of a Y chromosome from the male with one X chromosome from the female results in an offspring with genetic constitution XY. The child produced is a male or a son.
  6. The offspring produced are always in equal proportion, and hence, the chance of having a daughter or a son is 50%.

iv. Sex determination in man:

Concept: Sex Determination
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