Maharashtra State Board course SSC (Marathi Semi-English) 9th
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Answer the Following Question in Your Own Word. Explain the Structure, Function and Types of Rna. - Science and Technology

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Question

Answer the following question in your own word.

Explain the structure, function and types of RNA.

Solution

A RNA nucleotide has three main components − a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar and a phosphate group.

• The ribose sugar and the phosphates form the backbone of a polynucleotide chain with nitrogenous bases linked to sugar moiety and projecting from the backbone.

• Two types of nitrogenous bases are present i.e. Purines (Adenine and Guanine) and Pyrimidines (Cytosine and Uracil).

• A nitrogenous base is linked to the ribose sugar through N-glycosidic linkages to form a nucleoside (like adenosine, guanosine or cytidine and uridine).

• A phosphate group is linked to 5'-OH of a nucleoside through phosphoester linkage to form a corresponding nucleotide.

• Every nucleotide residue has an additional −OH group present at 2' -position in the ribose.

• Many nucleotides are linked through 3'-5' phosphodiester linkages to each other to form the polynucleotide chain.

• The end of the chain which has a free phosphate moiety at 5'-end of ribose sugar is referred to as 5’-end and the other end of the chain having a free 3'-OH group at the ribose sugar is referred to as 3' -end of the polynucleotide chain.

There are 3 types of RNA:

1. mRNA (messenger RNA) − It serves as a template for protein synthesis. DNA is transcribed to form an mRNA, which in turn is translated to form protein.

2. tRNA (transfer RNA) − It brings amino acids during translation and reads the genetic code.
3. rRNA (ribosomal RNA) − These are the work benches of translation. They play a structural and catalytic role during translation.

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APPEARS IN

 Balbharati Solution for Balbharati Class 9 Science and Technology (2019 to Current)
Chapter 16: Heredity and Variation
Exercise | Q: 3.4 | Page no. 193
Solution Answer the Following Question in Your Own Word. Explain the Structure, Function and Types of Rna. Concept: Inheritance.
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