Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their property as indicated:
CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH, CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH, (CH3)2CHCOOH, CH3CH2CH2COOH (acid strength)
After losing a proton, carboxylic acids gain a negative charge as shown:
`R - COOH -> R- COO^(-) + H^(+)`
Now, any group that will help stabilise the negative charge will increase the stability of the carboxyl ion and as a result, will increase the strength of the acid. Thus, groups having +I effect will decrease the strength of the acids and groups having −I effect will increase the strength of the acids. In the given compounds, −CH3 group has +I effect and Br− group has −I effect. Thus, acids containing Br− are stronger.
Now, the +I effect of isopropyl group is more than that of n-propyl group. Hence, (CH3)2CHCOOH is a weaker acid than CH3CH2CH2COOH.
Also, the −I effect grows weaker as distance increases. Hence, CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH is a weaker acid than CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH.
Hence, the strengths of the given acids increase as:
(CH3)2CHCOOH < CH3CH2CH2COOH < CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH < CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH
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