Answer the following:
The mean diameter of a thin brass rod is to be measured by vernier callipers. Why is a set of 100 measurements of the diameter expected to yield a more reliable estimate than a set of 5 measurements only?
A set of 100 measurements is more reliable than a set of 5 measurements because random errors involved in the former are very less as compared to the latter.
Due to random errors, a large number of observation will give a more reliable result than smaller number of observations. This is due to the fact that the probability (chance) of making a positive random error of a given magnitude is equal to that of making a negative random error of the same magnitude. Thus in a large number of observations, positive and negative errors are likely to cancel each other. Hence more reliable result can be obtained.