"A very small sample of tissue or even a drop of blood can help determine paternity." Provide a scientific explanation to substantiate how it is possible.
A very small sample of DNA obtained from a tissue or even a drop of blood can serve as a source for paternity testing. By using the techniques of PCR and DNA fingerprinting, we can determine the paternity of any individual.
The steps are as follows -
- The first step includes the extraction of DNA from the cells or blood.
- The DNA molecules are then broken into small fragments that contain a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR's).
- The DNA fragments are then separated by gel electrophoresis.
- These DNA fragments are multiplied using PCR.
- They are then converted into single-stranded DNA by treatment with alkaline chemicals.
- It is followed by transferring these fragments to the nylon membrane.
- The nylon membrane is exposed to X-ray film which creates dark-colored bands called fingerprints.
- These fingerprints can then be used to determine paternity.
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- DNA Fingerprinting Technique