A small sphere of radius r1 and charge q1 is enclosed by a spherical shell of radius r2 and charge q2. Show that if q1 is positive, charge will necessarily flow from the sphere to the shell (when the two are connected by a wire) no matter what the charge q2 on the shell is.
According to Gauss’s law, the electric field between a sphere and a shell is determined by the charge q1on a small sphere. Hence, the potential difference, V, between the sphere and the shell is independent of charge q2. For positive charge q1, potential difference V is always positive.