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**(a)** Consider an arbitrary electrostatic field configuration. A small test charge is placed at a null point (i.e., where E** **= 0) of the configuration. Show that the equilibrium of the test charge is necessarily unstable.

**(b)** Verify this result for the simple configuration of two charges of the same magnitude and sign placed a certain distance apart.

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#### Solution

**(a) **Let the equilibrium of the test charge be stable. If a test charge is in equilibrium and displaced from its position in any direction, then it experiences a restoring force towards a null point, where the electric field is zero. All the field lines near the null point are directed inwards towards the null point. There is a net inward flux of electric field through a closed surface around the null point. According to Gauss’s law, the flux of electric field through a surface, which is not enclosing any charge, is zero. Hence, the equilibrium of the test charge can be stable.

**(b) **Two charges of the same magnitude and same sign are placed at a certain distance. The mid-point of the joining line of the charges is the null point. When a test charge is displaced along the line, it experiences a restoring force. If it is displaced normal to the joining line, then the net force takes it away from the null point. Hence, the charge is unstable because the stability of equilibrium requires restoring force in all directions.

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