A Conductor a with a Cavity as Shown in Fig. 1.36(A) is Given a Charge Q. Show that the Entire Charge Must Appear on the Outer Surface of the Conductor. - Physics

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Numerical

(a) A conductor A with a cavity as shown in Fig (a) is given a charge Q. Show that the entire charge must appear on the outer surface of the conductor.

(b) Another conductor B with charge q is inserted into the cavity keeping B insulated from A. Show that the total charge on the outside surface of A is Q + q [Fig. (b)].

(c) A sensitive instrument is to be shielded from the strong electrostatic fields in its environment. Suggest a possible way.

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Solution

(a) Let us consider a Gaussian surface that is lying wholly within a conductor and enclosing the cavity. The electric field intensity E inside the charged conductor is zero.

Let q is the charge inside the conductor and `in_0` is the permittivity of free space.

According to Gauss’s law,

Flux, `phi = vec"E".vec("ds") = "q"/in_0`

Here, E = 0

`"q"/in_0 = 0`

∵ ∈0 `≠` 0

∴ q = 0

Therefore, charge inside the conductor is zero.

The entire charge Q appears on the outer surface of the conductor.

(b) The outer surface of conductor A has a charge of amount Q. Another conductor B having charge +q is kept inside conductor A and it is insulated from A. Hence, a charge of amount −q will be induced in the inner surface of conductor A and +q is induced on the outer surface of conductor A. Therefore, the total charge on the outer surface of conductor A is Q + q.

(c) A sensitive instrument can be shielded from the strong electrostatic field in its environment by enclosing it fully inside a metallic surface. A closed metallic body acts as an electrostatic shield.

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Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields - Exercise [Page 49]

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NCERT Physics Class 12
Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields
Exercise | Q 1.28 | Page 49
NCERT Physics Class 12
Chapter 1 Electric Charge and Fields
Exercise | Q 28 | Page 49

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