Maharashtra State BoardHSC Science (General) 11th
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A box contains three coins: two fair coins and one fake two-headed coin is picked randomly from the box and tossed. What is the probability that it lands head up? - Mathematics and Statistics

Sum

A box contains three coins: two fair coins and one fake two-headed coin is picked randomly from the box and tossed. What is the probability that it lands head up?

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Solution

Let E1 ≡ the event that first fair coin is selected

E2 ≡ the event that second fair coin is selected

E3 ≡ the event that two-headed coin is selected

H ≡ the event that head turns up

Then P(E1) = P(E2) = P(E3) = `1/3`

and `"P"("H"/"E"_1) = 1/2, "P"("H"/"E"_2) = 1/2, "P"("H"/"E"_3)` = 1

Head will turn up if anyone of E1 ∩ H, E2 ∩ H, E3 ∩ H, occurs.

These events are mutually exclusive

∴ P(H) = P(E1 ∩ H) + P(E2 ∩ H) +  P(E3 ∩ H)

= `"P"("E"_1)*"P"("H"/"E"_1) + "P"("E"_2)*"P"("H"/"E"_2) + "P"("E"_3)*"P"("H"/"E"_3)`

= `1/3*1/2 + 1/3* 1/2 + 1/3*1`  ...[E1, E2, E3 are equally likely]

= `2/3`.

Concept: Baye'S Theorem
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