HSC Commerce (Marketing and Salesmanship) 12th Board ExamMaharashtra State Board

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     Have you are wondered why soliders are always clad in green ? This is to enable them to camouflaging themselves during wartime. Hiding in the jungles, their green attire blend into the surrounding trees and shrubs, making it difficult for the enemies to spot them.

        Long before man made use of camouflaging, insects have already adopted the tactic of disguise to escape from the clutches of their predators. By having body colour close to those of the rocks and dried leaves, they can escape from being pursued by the predators.

       Butterflies and moths have developed a variety of camouflage strategies since they are quite defenceless and their predators are abundant. Possessing wings which resemble dried leaves help certain butterflies and moths to hide among heaps of dried leaveswhen predators are around.

   Fortunately, not all insects choose the art of disguise to escape from their predators; otherwise, the world would be so dull and colourless. There are insects which assimilate the bright body colours of bees and wasps to escape from being pursued by their predator. Long ago, birds have already learnt to avoid brilliantly coloured wasps and bees in fear of their paintul stings. Hence, over millions of years, many harmless insects have assimilated the bees and wasps by imitating. their bright body colours and shapes. In this way, they appear dangerous and hence ward them off.

      The beefly not pnly appears like the bumblebee in terms of body colour, even its hums sound similar too. The only difference is that the beefly does not have a stirig and is hence harmless.The hoverfly is another insect which imitate. the body colours of the wasps. Their bodies are striped yellow and black. The only deviations are that hover flies do not have stings, and they have only one pair of wings each while wasps have two pairs each. These variations are hardly noticed by the predators and hence help them to escape.

A1. Complete the table with the information from the passage : (2)

Insects Similarity Difference
Bumble bee - Beefly    
Wasp - Hoverfly    

A2. Complete the tree diagram : (2)

A3. Find out : (2)

‘Nature has given self-protection mechanism to insects’.
Find out at least two examples from the passage to prove this statement. 

A4. Vocabulary - (2)

Find the words from the passage for :
(i) animal or bird that hunts other for food
(ii) to get free from danger
(iii) to prevent something from harming
(iv) to make a copy

A5. Personal response - (2)

‘Soldiers disguise themselves to prevent enemies to spot them’.
Give two more examples when the disguising technique is used by humans.

A6. Grammer - (2)

Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :
(i) They have only one pair of wings.
(Make it negative without changing the meaning)
(ii) Insects have already adopted the tactic of disguise to escape from the clutches of their predators.
(Replace infinitive with gerund and rewrite)

(B) Summary : (3)

Summarise the above extract with the help of the points given and suggest a suitable title.
Camouflage of soldiers and insects - reason and ways for disguising - assimilation of insects - need of imitation.

A1. Choose -

Choose two sentences that appropriately mention the theme of the passage :

(1) The extract deals with the writer’s concern over Chaitanya's handicap.
(2) The extract depicts the writer’s proud feelings towards her son’s achievement.
(3) The extract deals with how Chaitanya made the writer see positively towards life.
(4) The extract deals with how the writer helps Chaitanya to buy the bus ticket.

          Early in 1997-98, when he returned from state level inter-school sports, he had two prizes to his credit and a silver medal. He had won his laurels in athletic events and the silver medal in a running race.
         When I saw the prizes and read the citation Chaitanya had received, I was stupefied, in total disbelief, then–hugged him, kissed him and cried unabashedly to my heart’s content. That day, I cried for the first time out of joy and a sense of being vindicated. Without practice he had competed with approximately 1,800 children drawn trom various schools all over the state. He was subsequently selected for the marathon race, but he could not participate due to a health problem. “May be next year, he would”, I assured myself. And I, as his proud mother, would proudly chronicle his future achievements and success to inspire other - mothers of the world.
                 Looking back at my own life, I feel that it is the spirit with which we can accept our life gracefully is what
matters ultimately; and it is love which nourishes us. All other things are unimportant. Chaitanya has made me look inwards. His handicap doesn’t disturb me any longer. He and I shall live with it and still be happy. The mental strength which he has given to me is inexhaustible.
         One day, as both of us got onto a public transport bus, Chaitanya offered to buy the tickets for us.
           “One full, one half ”, he said to the conductor beaming with joy.
               Looking at him, I wondered whether he was really only a half? An incomplete person? Was I really full?
Complete in all respects? Why do then normal people feel that they are ‘full’ and others like Chaitanya are ‘half’ or incomplete? Chaitanya’s world is complete in itself, pure and innocent while our lives are full of deceit, jealousies, ill-feelings. 

A2. Point out - 

Point out two instances where you find Chaitanya's victory over his disability. 

A3. Give reasons - 

Chaitanya’s silver medal in a running race was very special for the writer, because :
(i) __________________
(ii) __________________ 

A4. Vocabulary - 

Match the pairs of the words in column ‘A’ with their meanings in column ‘B’: 

  Column ‘A’   Column ‘B’
(1) stupefied (a) official statement about the special act of courage
(2) chronicle (b) record events in the order they happened
(3) vindicated (c) surprised or shocked
(4) citation (d) justified

A5. Personal response -

Explain, your views about the ill-treatment the special children receive in the society. 

A6. Grammar - 

Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :
(i) He had won his laurels in athletic events and the silver medal in a running race.
(Rewrite the sentence using ‘not only...but also’.)
(ii) When I saw the prizes, I was stupefied.
(Rewrite the sentence using ‘No sooner.... than’.)

Read the following extract and complete the note given below :
The small village of Somnathpur contains an extraordinary temple, built around 1268 A.D by the Hoyasalas of Karnataka - one of the most prolific temple builders. Belur and Helebid are among their better-known works. While these suffered during the invasion of the 14th century, the Somnathpur temple stands more or less intact in near-original condition. The small temple captivates with the beauty and vitality of its detailed sculpture, covering almost every inch of the walls, pillars and even ceilings. It has three Shikhars and stands on a star-shaped raised platform with 24 edges. The outer walls have a profusion of detailed carvings: the entire surface run over by carved plaques of stone: There were vertical panels covered by exquisite figures of God and Goddesses, with many incarnations being depicted. There were nymphs too some carrying an ear of maize, a symbol of plenty and prosperity. The elaborate ornamentation, very characteristic of Hoyasala sculptures was a remarkable feature. On closer look and it is worth it-the series of friezes on the outer walls revealed intricately carved caparisored elephants, charging horsemen, stylized flowers and warriors.

                      Somnathpur Temple

(1) Location : ___________
(2) Year : 1268 A.D.
(3) Built by : ___________
(4) Captivates with : ___________
(5) Structural features :
    (i) Three Shikhars
    (ii) Star-shaped platform with 24 edges
   (iii) Outer wall carvings, ___________
    charging horsemen, __________ and warriors.
   (iv) Nymphs-symbol of ___________

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