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What is Cell Made up Of? What is the Structural Organisation of a Cell? - Plasma Membrane Or Cell Membrane

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Plasma Membrane or Cell Membrane:

This is the outermost covering of the cell that separates the contents of the cell from its external environment. The plasma membrane allows or permits the entry and exit of some materials in and out of the cell. It also prevents movement of some other materials. The cell membrane, therefore, is called a selectively permeable membrane.

Some substances like carbon dioxide or oxygen can move across the cell membrane by a process called diffusion. We have studied the process of diffusion in earlier chapters. We saw that there is spontaneous movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to a region where its concentration is low. Something similar to this happens in cells when, for example, some substance like CO2 (which is cellular waste and requires to be excreted out by the cell) accumulates in high concentrations inside the cell. In the cell’s external environment, the concentration of CO2 is low as compared to that inside the cell. As soon as there is a difference of concentration of CO2 inside and outside a cell, CO2 moves out of the cell, from a region of high concentration, to a region of low concentration outside the cell by the process of diffusion. Similarly, O2 enters the cell by the process of diffusion when the level or concentration of O2 inside the cell decreases. Thus, diffusion plays an important role in gaseous exchange between the cells as well as the cell and its external environment. 

Osmosis:

What will happen if we put an animal cell or a plant cell into a solution of sugar or salt in water?

One of the following three things could happen:

1. If the medium surrounding the cell has a higher water concentration than the cell, meaning that the outside solution is very dilute, the cell will gain water by osmosis. Such a solution is known as a hypotonic solution. Water molecules are free to pass across the cell membrane in both directions, but more water will come into the cell than will leave. The net (overall) result is that water enters the cell. The cell is likely to swell up.

2. If the medium has exactly the same water concentration as the cell, there will be no net movement of water across the cell membrane. Such a solution is known as an isotonic solution. Water crosses the cell membrane in both directions, but the amount going in is the same as the amount going out, so there is no overall movement of water. The cell will stay the same size.

3. If the medium has a lower concentration of water than the cell, meaning that it is a very concentrated solution, the cell will lose water by osmosis. Such a solution is known as a hypertonic solution.

Again, water crosses the cell membrane in both directions, but this time more water leaves the cell than enters it. Therefore the cell will shrink. Thus, osmosis is a special case of diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane. 

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