Topics
Physical World and Measurement
Physical World
Units and Measurements
 International System of Units
 Measurement of Length
 Measurement of Mass
 Measurement of Time
 Accuracy, Precision and Least Count of Measuring Instruments
 Errors in Measurements
 Significant Figures
 Dimensions of Physical Quantities
 Dimensional Formulae and Dimensional Equations
 Dimensional Analysis and Its Applications
 Need for Measurement
 Units of Measurement
 Fundamental and Derived Units
 Length, Mass and Time Measurements
 Introduction of Units and Measurements
Kinematics
Laws of Motion
 Aristotle’s Fallacy
 The Law of Inertia
 Newton's First Law of Motion
 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
 Newton's Third Law of Motion
 Conservation of Momentum
 Equilibrium of a Particle
 Common Forces in Mechanics
 Circular Motion and Its Characteristics
 Solving Problems in Mechanics
 Static and Kinetic Friction
 Laws of Friction
 Inertia
 Intuitive Concept of Force
 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion  Centripetal Force
 Examples of Circular Motion (Vehicle on a Level Circular Road, Vehicle on a Banked Road)
 Lubrication  (Laws of Motion)
 Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum and Its Applications
 Rolling Friction
 Introduction of Motion in One Dimension
Motion in a Straight Line
 Position, Path Length and Displacement
 Average Velocity and Average Speed
 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
 Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion
 Acceleration (Average and Instantaneous)
 Relative Velocity
 Elementary Concept of Differentiation and Integration for Describing Motion
 Uniform and Nonuniform Motion
 Uniformly Accelerated Motion
 Positiontime, Velocitytime and Accelerationtime Graphs
 Position  Time Graph
 Relations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion (Graphical Treatment)
 Introduction of Motion in One Dimension
Work, Energy and Power
 Introduction of Work, Energy and Power
 Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy: the Workenergy Theorem
 Kinetic Energy
 Work Done by a Constant Force and a Variable Force
 Concept of Work
 The Concept of Potential Energy
 Conservation of Mechanical Energy
 Potential Energy of a Spring
 Various Forms of Energy : the Law of Conservation of Energy
 Power
 Collisions
 Non  Conservative Forces  Motion in a Vertical Circle
Motion in a Plane
 Scalars and Vectors
 Multiplication of Vectors by a Real Number or Scalar
 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors  Graphical Method
 Resolution of Vectors
 Vector Addition – Analytical Method
 Motion in a Plane
 Motion in a Plane with Constant Acceleration
 Projectile Motion
 Uniform Circular Motion (UCM)
 General Vectors and Their Notations
 Motion in a Plane  Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity
 Rectangular Components
 Scalar (Dot) and Vector (Cross) Product of Vectors
 Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions
 Cases of Uniform Velocity
 Cases of Uniform Acceleration Projectile Motion
 Motion in a Plane  Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration
 Angular Velocity
 Introduction of Motion in One Dimension
Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
Laws of Motion
Work, Energy and Power
Gravitation
 Kepler’s Laws
 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
 The Gravitational Constant
 Acceleration Due to Gravity of the Earth
 Acceleration Due to Gravity Below and Above the Earth's Surface
 Acceleration Due to Gravity and Its Variation with Altitude and Depth
 Gravitational Potential Energy
 Escape Speed
 Earth Satellites
 Energy of an Orbiting Satellite
 Geostationary and Polar Satellites
 Weightlessness
 Escape Velocity
 Orbital Velocity of a Satellite
System of Particles and Rotational Motion
 Motion  Rigid Body
 Centre of Mass
 Motion of Centre of Mass
 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles
 Vector Product of Two Vectors
 Angular Velocity and Its Relation with Linear Velocity
 Torque and Angular Momentum
 Equilibrium of Rigid Body
 Moment of Inertia
 Theorems of Perpendicular and Parallel Axes
 Kinematics of Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis
 Dynamics of Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis
 Angular Momentum in Case of Rotation About a Fixed Axis
 Rolling Motion
 Momentum Conservation and Centre of Mass Motion
 Centre of Mass of a Rigid Body
 Centre of Mass of a Uniform Rod
 Rigid Body Rotation
 Equations of Rotational Motion
 Comparison of Linear and Rotational Motions
 Values of Moments of Inertia for Simple Geometrical Objects (No Derivation)
Properties of Bulk Matter
Gravitation
Thermodynamics
 Thermal Equilibrium
 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
 Heat, Internal Energy and Work
 First Law of Thermodynamics
 Specific Heat Capacity
 Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State
 Thermodynamic Process
 Heat Engine
 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
 Carnot Engine
 Isothermal Processes
 Adiabatic Processes
Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases
Mechanical Properties of Solids
Mechanical Properties of Fluids
 Thrust and Pressure
 Pascal’s Law
 Variation of Pressure with Depth
 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
 Hydraulic Machines
 Streamline and Turbulent Flow
 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
 Viscous Force or Viscosity
 Reynold's Number
 Surface Tension
 Effect of Gravity on Fluid Pressure
 Terminal Velocity
 Critical Velocity
 Excess of Pressure Across a Curved Surface
 Introduction of Mechanical Properties of Fluids
 Archimedes' Principle
 Stoke's Law
 Equation of Continuity
 Torricelli's Law
Oscillations and Waves
Thermal Properties of Matter
 Heat and Temperature
 Measurement of Temperature
 Idealgas Equation and Absolute Temperature
 Thermal Expansion
 Specific Heat Capacity
 Calorimetry
 Change of State  Latent Heat Capacity
 Conduction
 Convection
 Radiation
 Newton’s Law of Cooling
 Qualitative Ideas of Black Body Radiation
 Wien's Displacement Law
 Stefan's Law
 Anomalous Expansion of Water
 Liquids and Gases
 Thermal Expansion of Solids
 Green House Effect
Thermodynamics
Kinetic Theory
 Molecular Nature of Matter
 Gases and Its Characteristics
 Equation of State of a Perfect Gas
 Work Done in Compressing a Gas
 Introduction of Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas
 Interpretation of Temperature in Kinetic Theory
 Law of Equipartition of Energy
 Specific Heat Capacities  Gases
 Mean Free Path
 Kinetic Theory of Gases  Concept of Pressure
 Assumptions of Kinetic Theory of Gases
 RMS Speed of Gas Molecules
 Degrees of Freedom
 Avogadro's Number
Oscillations
 Periodic and Oscillatory Motion
 Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M.)
 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion
 Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion
 Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion
 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
 Some Systems Executing Simple Harmonic Motion
 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion
 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
 Displacement as a Function of Time
 Periodic Functions
 Oscillations  Frequency
Waves
 Heat
 Chemical Energy
 Electrical Energy
 The Equivalence of Mass and Energy
 Nuclear Energy
 The Principle of Conservation of Energy
Notes
Various forms of energy
Heat:

A block of mass m sliding on a rough horizontal surface with speed v_{0} comes to a halt over a distance x_{0}.
The work done by the force of kinetic friction f over x_{0} is –fx_{0}.
By the workenergy theorem, `(mv_o^2)/2 = fx_0.` 
If we confine our scope to mechanics, we would say that the kinetic energy of the block is ‘lost’ due to the frictional force.
On examination of the block and the table we would detect a slight increase in their temperatures. 
The work done by friction is not ‘lost’, but is transferred as heat energy.
This raises the internal energy of the block and the table. 
In winter, in order to feel warm, we generate heat by vigorously rubbing our palms together.

A quantitative idea of the transfer of heat energy is obtained by noting that 1 kg of water releases about 42000 J of energy when it cools by 10°C.
Chemical Energy:

Chemical energy arises from the fact that the molecules participating in the chemical reaction have different binding energies.

If the total energy of the reactants is more than the products of the reaction, heat is released and the reaction is said to be an exothermic reaction.
Example When you freeze water you remove energy from water to lower its temperature and its phase is changed to ice, so it is a exothermic process. 
If the reverse is true, heat is absorbed and the reaction is endothermic.
Example While melting the ice you provide energy to the ice to increase its temperature and change its phase to water, so it is a endothermic process. 
Coal consists of carbon and a kilogram of it when burnt releases about 3 × 107 J of energy.

Chemical energy is associated with the forces that give rise to the stability of substances. These forces bind atoms into molecules, molecules into polymeric chains, etc.

The chemical energy arising from the combustion of coal, cooking gas, wood and petroleum is indispensable to our daily existence.
The Equivalence of Mass and Energy

Physicists believed that in every physical and chemical process, the mass of an isolated system is conserved till Albert Einstein show the relation, E = mc^{2} where c, the speed of light in vacuum is approximately 3 ×10^{8} m s^{–1}

This equation showed that mass and energy are equivalent and are related by E = m c^{2}.

If there is a difference between the sum of reactants and products that difference, dm, is called mass defect.

In case of chemical reactions the mass defect is very small and can be neglected, but in the case of nuclear reactions this becomes significant.
Nuclear Energy:

The energy released from the nuclear reactions, either fission or fusion, is called as nuclear energy.

Nuclear fusion and fission are manifestations of the equivalence of mass and energy.

In fusion light atom nuclei like Hydrogen fuse to form a bigger nucleus whose mass is less than the sum of the masses of the reactants.

In fission, a heavy nucleus like uranium 235U92, is split by a neutron into lighter nuclei. Once again the final mass is less than the initial mass and the mass difference translates into energy.
Strictly, the energy ∆E released in a chemical reaction can also be related to the mass defect `∆m = (∆E)/(c^2)`. However, for a chemical reaction, this mass defect is much smaller than for a nuclear reaction. Table below lists the total energies for a variety of events and phenomena.
Approximate energy associated with various phenomena
Description  Energy (J) 
Big Bang  10^{68} 
Radio energy emitted by the galaxy during its lifetime  10^{55} 
Rotational energy of the Milky Way  10^{52} 
Energy released in a supernova explosion  10^{44} 
Oceans's hydrogen in fusion  10^{34} 
Rotational energy of the earth  10^{29} 
Annual solar energy incident on the earth  5 × 10^{21} 
Annual wind energy dissipated near earth's surface  10^{22} 
Annual global energy usage by human  3 × 10^{20} 
Annual energy dissipated by the tides  10^{20} 
Energy release of 15megaton fusion bomb  10^{17} 
Annual electrical output of large generating plant  10^{16} 
Thunderstorm  10^{15} 
Energy released in burning 1000 kg of coal  3 × 10^{10 } 
Kinetic energy of a large jet aircraft  10^{9} 
Energy released in burning 1 litre of gasoline  3 × 10^{7} 
Daily food intake of a human adult  10^{7} 
Work done by a human heart per beat  0.5 
Turning this page  10^{3} 
Flea hop  10^{7} 
Discharge of a single neuron  10^{10} 
Typical energy of a proton in a nucleus  10^{13} 
Typical energy of an electron in an atom  10^{18} 
Energy to break one bond in DNA  10^{20} 
Electrical Energy:

The flow of electrical current causes bulbs to glow, fans to rotate and bells to ring.

Energy is associated with an electric current.

There are laws governing the attraction and repulsion of charges and currents, which we shall learn later.

An urban Indian household consumes about 200 J of energy per second on an average.
Principle of Conservation of Energy

If the forces involved are nonconservative, part of the mechanical energy may get transformed into other forms such as heat, light and sound.

However, the total energy of an isolated system does not change.

Since the universe as a whole may be viewed as an isolated system, the total energy of the universe is constant.

The sum of all kinds of energies in an isolated system remains constant at all times.