Maharashtra State BoardSSC (English Medium) 9th Standard




  • Introduction to Indian Society
    • Introduction to Indian Society
    • Ancient and Medieval India
    • Colonial Period
    • Post-independent India
  • Segments of Indian Society
    • Introduction to Segments of Indian Society
    • Tribal Community
    • Reasons for Tribal Exploitation
    • Problems Faced by the Tribal Community
    • ‘Panchsheel’ Philosophy of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
    • Tribal Development Efforts After Independence
    • Rural Community
    • Problems of Indian Rural Community
    • Efforts for Rural Development
    • Urban Community
    • Major Urban Problems
    • Efforts Towards Urban Development
  • Diversity and Unity in Indian Society
    • Introduction of Diversity and Unity in Indian Society
    • Diversity in Indian Society
    • Unity in Diversity
    • Challenges to National Unity
    • Factors that Are Responsible for Economic Inequality in Society
  • Processes of Social Change in India
  • Social Movements in India
    • Meaning and Nature of Social Movement
    • Types of Social Movements
    • Causes of Social Movements
    • Social Movements and Social Change
    • Womens’ Movement in India
    • Workers’ Movements
    • Farmer's Movements
    • Environmental Movement in India
  • Social Problems in India
    • Social Problem
    • Ageing
    • The Problems of Ageing
    • Measures to Tackle the Problems of Ageing
    • Concept of Unemployed
    • Factors Responsible for Unemployment
    • Consequences of Unemployment
    • Measures to Tackle the Problem of Unemployment
    • Farmers’ Suicide
    • Causes of Farmers’ Suicide
    • Consequences of Farmers’ Suicides
    • Measures to Tackle the Problem of Farmer Suicides
    • Domestic Violence
    • Causes of Domestic Violence
    • Consequences of Domestic Violence
    • Measures to Deal with Domestic Violence
    • Addiction (Substance, Internet, Mobile)
    • Types of Addiction
    • Causes of Addiction
    • Consequences of Addiction
    • Measures to Tackle Addiction Problems
  • Passages
    • Passages
  • Definitions of Urbanisation
  • Characteristics of Urbanisation



The rise and fall of the cities depend on its political and cultural graph of events. The process of urbanisation is associated mainly with political and economic development. Alauddin Khalji of the Khalji dynasty built the city of ‘Siri’. The Sultan of the Tughluq dynasty set up three cities namely, Tughluqabad, Jahanpanha, and Firozabad. The Sultans of Sayyed and Lodi dynasty made the city of Agra as their capital. He created Siri between 1297 and 1307 to defend against Mongol invasions of India and Delhi. In response, he built Siri Fort, mimicked massive Turkish ones. The Fort served as the seat of his power during his campaigns to enlarge his territory. Due to frequent Mongol invasions of West Asia, the Seljuqs took asylum in Delhi. The craftsmen of the Seljuq Dynasty are credited with this era's architectural monuments in Delhi.

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