Unseen Passage Comprehension

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Read the passage given below.


Technology is making advancements at a rapid rate but at the cost of a valued tradition - the crafts industry. The traditional crafts industry is losing a lot of its trained and skilled craftsmen. With that, the art of embellishing brass and copper utensils with fine engravings is also disappearing. The government has identified around 35 crafts as a languishing craft.


The speciality of handcrafted items is their design, an association with long traditions belonging to a specific region. The word ‘handcrafted’ does not imply the involvement of dexterous human fingers or an agile mind with a moving spirit anymore. Lessening drudgery, increasing production and promoting efficiency have taken precedence. The labour-saving devices are taking the place of handcrafted tools and this has jeopardized the skills of these artisans.


Mechanisation has made its way into everything - cutting, polishing, edging, designing etc. Ideally, the use of machinery should be negligible and the handicrafts should be made purely by hand with a distinguishable artistic appeal. However, with the exception of small-scale industries, the export units are mostly operated by machines. The heavily computerised designs contribute to faster production at lower costs.


Although mechanization of crafts poses a challenge to safeguarding traditional crafts, the artisans are lured with incentives in order to impart handicrafts training. Some makers do see machines as a time-saving blessing since they are now able to accomplish difficult and demanding tasks with relative ease. These machines might give a better 25finesse to these products but they don’t stand out as handcrafted. The quantity has overtaken quality in this industry.


A need to highlight the importance of the handmade aspect is required by both the government and private sectors, in order to amplify awareness and also support the culture of making handicrafts. A few artisans are still trying their best to rejuvenate and revive their culture and heritage but it’s an uphill task competing with the machine-made goods. A multitude of artisans have changed their professions and are encouraging their progeny to follow suit. There are others who have stayed their ground but are clearly inclined towards buying machines.


Nearly two decades ago, there were around 65 lakh artisans in the country. Three years ago, when the government started the process of granting a unique number to the artisans based on the Aadhaar card, 25 lakhs were identified. Loss of traditional crafts is clearly a worrying issue, but it stands to reason that forcing any artisan to follow old ways when concerns of livelihood overrule other considerations, is unfair.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below.

  1. What does the writer mean by calling handicrafts a ‘valued tradition’?
  2. Rewrite the following sentence by replacing the underlined phrase with a word that means the same from lines 5-15.
    If it continues, the workcation (work + vacation) trend will be a powerful boost to domestic tourism operators failing to make progress in the economic slump caused due to the pandemic.
  3. State any two reasons why artisans are choosing to work via machines rather than handcrafted tools.
  4. Why do the artisans need to be ‘lured with incentives’ to impart handicrafts training?
  5. List one likely impact of the support of government and private sectors towards the culture of making handicrafts.
  6. How does the writer justify an artist’s act of abandoning her/his traditional craft for a more lucrative option?

Read the following excerpt from a case study.

Impacts of Festivities on Ecology
5 Festivals are synonymous with celebration, ceremony and joy. However, festivals bring to the fore the flip side of celebrations – pollution – air, water, soil and noise. This led to the need of assessing the awareness level among people about ecological pollution during festivals. So, a study was conducted by scholars of an esteemed university in India. This study was titled Awareness Towards Impact of Festivals on Ecology.
10 There were two main objectives of the study. The first one was to assess the awareness level among people about ecological protection during festivities. Exploring solutions to bring awareness about celebrating festivals without harming ecology was the second objective. The method used to collect data was a simple questionnaire containing 6 questions, shared with 50 respondents across four selected districts of a state in the southern region of India.

The research began by understanding the socio-economic conditions of the respondents before sharing the questionnaire. Once the responses were received, the data collected were tabulated (Table 1), for analysis. 

Table-1: Awareness level among respondents

1. Do you feel that bursting crackers is a must during festivities? 46 54 0
2. Do you think most people abuse environmental resources during the celebration of festivals? 72 28 0
3. Do you think that celebrations & festivities result in uniting people? 64 32 4
4. Do you enjoy bursting crackers for amusement? 68 32 0
5. Do you feel pressured to burst crackers during festivals as an expectation of your social status? 82 12 6
6. Are you aware of waste segregation & disposal guidelines for better ecology? 56 40 4
20 The study recommended the imposition of strict rules and regulations as opposed to a total ban on all festive activities which have a drastic impact on our environment. The researchers believed that such measures would help in harnessing some ill-effects that add to the growing pollution and suggested further studies be taken up across the country to assess awareness about ecological degradation.
25  The observations made in the study pointed to the environmental groups and eco-clubs fighting a losing battle due to city traffic issues, disposal of plastics, garbage dumping and all sorts of ecological degradation. The researchers stressed that the need of the hour is increasing awareness among people to reduce environmental pollution which can be facilitated by celebrating all festivals in an eco-friendly manner.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below.

  1. Why do the researchers call pollution the ‘flip side’ of festivals?
  2. Comment on the significance of the second objective of the study with reference to lines 7-12.
  3. Justify the researchers’ recommendation for limiting the drastic impact of festival pollution on the environment with reference to lines 16-21.
  4. Why do the researchers feel that environmental groups and eco-clubs are fighting a losing battle in the given scenario?
  5. Even though a larger number of people say ‘no’ to bursting crackers than those who say ‘yes’, festival pollution persists. How does evidence from table 1 support this statement?
  6. What purpose does the ‘Can’t Say’ column serve in the questionnaire (table 1)?

Read the passage given below.

1 Mountains have always been held in great awe by mankind. They have been a challenge to humans. Those brave among us have always wanted to conquer them. You see, the more incredible the mountains, the greater the thrill – a challenge to the bravery of the human race. Climbing mountains is an experience that is hard to put into words. You are in a beautiful environment and, when you reach the top, you feel incredible. But you also have to climb down, which is when most accidents happen – people are tired, it gets dark, it’s harder. So, mountain climbing is undoubtedly one of the most popular adventure sports along with being challenging and risky for the climber.
2 Without any perceived risk, there can’t be a feeling that any significant challenge has been surmounted. Fair, but we have to bear in mind that mountaineering is not a sport that can be embraced without preparation. The enthusiasts must develop in themselves the spirit of adventure, willingness to undertake hardships and risks, extraordinary powers of perseverance, endurance, and keenness of purpose before climbing a mountain. They should also know how to handle mountaineering equipment. Then comes the penance of the rigorous training. This could very well be the lifeline up there. It helps inculcate and hone survival instincts that allow the climber to negotiate perilous situations. There are numerous institutes in India and abroad that offer such training.
3 Mountain climbers are unanimous in agreeing that unpredictable weather is what they fear the most. There may be sunshine one moment and a snowstorm the other. At higher altitudes, snow is a regular feature and being decisive about setting up camps or proceeding further is crucial. The icy sheets after ice storms make walking treacherous, while the powdery snow makes a mountaineer sink deep into the snow. Up there, where the intention is to embrace Nature’s wonder, one realizes that it cannot be done without facing its formidable glory. A true mountaineer may challenge the mountain, yet is always respectful of the powerful forces of nature.
4 Summiting mountains carries its own health risks such as oxygen and altitude sickness problems, frost bites, swelling of hands and feet, fluid collection in brain or lungs and exhaustion. Yet, the gratification mountaineers feel from mastering something that is so frightening, urges them to undertake these endeavors. We may think that the mountaineers are fearless, experts say, “Not at all. It’s fear that keeps them so intrigued with such arduous journeys.” Impulse and brazenness can be deadly foes. In the words of the Indian mountaineer, Bachendri Pal, “The biggest risk ... is to not to take the risk at all. Remember that.”

i. Why does the writer say that mountains inspire ‘awe’ in humans? (Paragraph 1)  (1)

  1. They present us with opportunities for exciting sports.
  2. They evoke the wish in us, to master them.
  3. They inspire in us, deeds of valour.
  4. They represent peace and calm, to us.

ii. Select the option that corresponds to the following relation below:  (1)

The more incredible the mountains - the greater the thrill (Paragraph 1)

  1. The higher the stamina - the lower the food intake
  2. The more you laugh - the lesser your illness
  3. The smaller the car - the bigger the advantage
  4. The heavier the luggage - the higher the penalty

iii. Select the option that displays what the writer projects, with reference to the following:  (1)

So, mountain climbing is undoubtedly one of the most popular adventure sports (Paragraph 1)

  1. doubt
  2. caution
  3. conviction
  4. denial

iv. Complete the following with a phrase from paragraph 1.  (1)

Opinion Reason
______ Best experienced rather than described

v. The writer compares training to penance in the line - Then comes the penance of the rigorous training. (Paragraph 2)  (1)

State 1 point of similarity between training and penance.

vi. Based on your reading of the text, list 2 reasons why the writer says that
“mountaineering is not a sport that can be embraced without preparation”. (Paragraph 2)  (1)

  1. ____________
  2. ____________

vii. What connect does the writer draw out between unpredictable weather and setting up of camps? (Paragraph 3)  (1)

viii. The writer says, “A true mountaineer may challenge the mountain, yet is always respectful to the powerful forces of nature.” (Paragraph 3)  (1)

Select the reason the mountaineer is respectful to the forces of nature, up in the mountains.

  1. survival
  2. experience
  3. tradition
  4. directive

ix. justify the following:  (1)

While mountain climbing, an impulsive mountaineer is either disaster-prone or as good as dead.

x. Evaluate the Inappropriate reason for the feeling of exhilaration on reaching a summit, that the mountain-climbers experience.  (1)

  1. Achievement of a seemingly impossible feat
  2. Spectacular panoramic view
  3. Application of the inculcated survival instincts
  4. Opportunity to use sophisticated mountaineering equipment

II. Read the passage given below.

1 The North-East of India is a melting pot of variegated cultural mosaic of people and races, an ethnic tapestry of many hues and shades. Yet, these states are lesser explored as compared to the rest of the country. The new generations of travellers who are ‘money rich and time poor’ are increasingly looking for unique experiences --a phenomenon being called the emergence of the ‘experience economy’. For this new and growing breed of tourists, the North-East with its variety and uniqueness holds immense attraction.
2 A study conducted in 2020 by Dr. Sherap Bhutia, revealed that the foreign tourist arrival in the North-East increased from 37,380 persons in 2005 to 118,552 in 2014. The overall growth rate of tourists (both domestic and foreign) in the North-East was as high as 26.44% during 2005-06. High and positive growth of 12.53% was registered in foreign tourist visits to North-East States of India during 2012 from 2011, which further rose to register a growth of 27.93% during 2013 from 2012. Foreign tourist arrivals in the North-East witnessed a growth of 39.77% during 2014 from 2013, according to data provided from the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India.
3 The study recommendations for tourism planners included the need to concentrate on some key areas like enhancement of tourist facilities, tourism financing, focus on community involvement and others for the formulation of a sustainable tourism strategy in the North-East States of India.

i. Infer one reason for the following, based on information in paragraph 1.  (1)

The rate of tourism in the North-East of India puzzles tourism officials.

ii. Select the appropriate option to fill in the blanks.  (1)

From paragraph 1, we can infer that the ______ and ______ of the North-Eastern states aid attracting the ‘money rich and time poor’ tourists.

1. distinctiveness
2. conventionality
3. diversity
4. uniformity
5. modernity

  1. 1 & 3
  2. 2 & 4
  3. 2 & 5
  4. 1 & 4

iii. Complete the following analogy correctly with a word/ phrase from paragraph 1:  (1)

aroma : cooking : : ______ : painting
(Clue: Just like aroma is integral to cooking, similarly, ______ is/ are integral to painting)

iv. Select the correct option to complete the following sentence:  (1)

Travellers advocating the ‘experience economy’ seek a holiday package with ______ (Paragraph 1)

  1. grand facilities, expensive hotels and excellent services to pamper them.
  2. a wholesome experience within the budget they have planned for.
  3. places and cities to buy things from and opportunities to spend money.
  4. cost-effective services, affordable accommodation and many days of touring.

v. Select the chart that appropriately represents the trend of foreign tourist travels in the North-East, from 2011-2014, as per paragraph 2.  (1)

(1) (2) (3) (4)
  1. Option 1
  2. Option 2
  3. Option 3
  4. Option 4

vi. Fill in the blank by selecting the correct option.  (1)

The study of tourist travel statistics in the North-East, from 2005 to 2014 showed ______ results.

  1. expected
  2. encouraging
  3. inconsistent
  4. questionable

vii. Substitute the word ‘witnessed’ with one word similar in meaning, in the following, sentence from paragraph 2:  (1)

Foreign tourist arrivals in the North-East witnessed a growth of...

viii. List any 2 examples of ‘tourist facilities’ as referred to, in Paragraph 3.  (1)

ix. List one reason why the researchers recommend that the formulation of a tourism strategy in the North-Eastern States of India be sustainable.  (1)

x. Select the option that titles paragraphs 1-3 appropriately, with reference to information in the text.  (1)

  1. 1. Full Speed Ahead!
    2. Ups and Downs
    3. Cause for Concern
  2. 1. Winds of Change
    2. Numbers Don't Lie
    3. Time for Action
  3. 1. Inspecting Trends
    2. Statistically Speaking
    3. Let's Investigate
  4. 1. Cause and Effect
    2. Dynamic Data
    3. Dependable Facts

Read the passage given below-

(1) Milkha Singh, also known as The Flying Sikh, was an Indian track and field sprinter who was introduced to the sport while serving in the Indian Army. He is the only athlete to win gold in 400 metres at the Asian Games as well as the Commonwealth Games. He also won gold medals in the 1958 and 1962 Asian Games. He represented India in the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome and the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. He was awarded the Padma Shri, India's fourth-highest civilian honour, in recognition of his sporting achievements.
(2) The race for which Singh is best remembered is his fourth-place finish in the 400 metres final at the 1960 Olympic Games. He led the race till the 200 m mark before easing off, allowing others to pass him. Singh's fourth-place time of 45.73 seconds was the Indian national record for almost 40 years.
(3) From beginning that saw him orphaned and displaced during the partition of India, Singh became a sporting icon in the country. In 2008, journalist Rohit Brijnath described Singh as "the finest athlete India has ever produced".
(4) He was disappointed with his debut performance at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics. "I returned to India, chastened by my poor performance in Melbourne. I had been so excited by the prospects of being part of the Indian Olympics team, but, hadn't realized how strong and professional the competition would be. My success in India had filled me with a false sense of pride and it was only when I was on the track that I saw how inconsequential my talents were when pitted against superbly fit and seasoned athletes. It was then that I understood what competition actually meant, and that if I wanted to succeed on the international arena, I must be prepared to test my mettle against the best athletes in the world."
(5) Then he decided to make sprinting the sole focus of his life.
"Running had thus become my God, my religion and my beloved".
"My life during those two years was governed by strict rules and regulations and a self-imposed penance. Every morning I would rise at the crack of dawn, get into my sports kit and dash off to the track, where I would run two or three miles cross-country in the company of my coach."
(6) On how he pushed himself through the tough days of vigorous training. "I practiced so strenuously that often I was drained of all energy, and there were times when I would increase my speed to such an extent that after my rounds, I would vomit blood or drop down unconscious through sheer exercise. My doctors and coaches warned me, asked me to slow down to maintain my health and equilibrium but my determination was too strong to give up. My only focus was to become the best athlete in the world. But then images of a packed stadium filled with cheering spectators, wildly applauding me as I crossed the finishing line, would flash across my mind and I would start again, encouraged by visions of victory."

Based on your reading answer any five questions from the six given below:   (5)

  1. What is Milkha Singh known as? What realization did Milkha Singh have when he was on the track during the Melbourne Olympics? 
  2. List any two of Milkha Singh's achievements.
  3. What strict rules and regulations did Milkha Singh follow?
  4. State two consequences of his hard and strenuous practice.
  5. What motivated Milkha Singh to become the best athlete in the world?
  6. Explain the phrase 'I would start again' in the last sentence.

Read the following excerpt from a Case Study. J.K. Rowling - A Journey.

The story of Joanne Kathleen Rowling's near magical rise to fame is almost as well known as the characters she creates.

Rowling was constantly writing and telling stories to her younger sister Dianne. "The first story I ever wrote down was about a rabbit called Rabbit." Rowling said in an interview. "He got measles and was visited by his friends including a giant bee called Miss Bee. And ever since Rabbit and Miss Bee, I have always wanted to be a writer, though I rarely told anyone so.

However, my parents, both of whom come from impoverished backgrounds and neither of whom had been to college, took the view that my overactive imagination was an amusing personal quirk that would never pay a mortgage or secure a pension.

A writer from the age of six, with two unpublished novels in the drawer, she was stuck on a train when Harry walked into her mind fully formed. She spent the next five years constructing the plots of seven books, one for every year of his secondary school life.

Rowling says she started writing the first book, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, in Portugal, where she was teaching English.

At first nobody wanted to publish Harry Potter. She was told that plot was too complex. Refusing to compromise, she found a publisher.

In 1997 Rowling received her first royalty cheque. By book three, she had sky rocketed to the top of the publishing world. A row of zeroes appeared on the author's bank balance and her life was turned upside down. Day and night she had journalists knocking on the unanswered door of her flat.

Rowling's quality control has become legendary, as her obsession with accuracy. She's thrilled with Stephen Fry's taped version of the books and outraged that an Italian dust jacket showed Harry minus his glasses. "Don't they understand that the glasses are the clue to his vulnerability."

Annual earnings of J.K. Rowlin from 2010 to 2019

On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer any five of the six questions given below.  (5)

  1. Explain J. K. Rowling's 'near magical rise to fame'.
  2. What reason did the publishers give for rejecting Rowling's book?
  3. What was the drawback of achieving fame?
  4. Why was Rowling outraged with the Italian dust jacket?
  5. Find a word in the last para that means the same as 'insecure/helpless'.
  6. According to the graph, how many years did it take Rowling to become very successful?
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