Constitution and Government
Forms of Government
Franchise and Representation
Organs of the Government
- What is an Executive
- Functions of Executive
- Discretionary Power of the President
- Civil Service
- Difference Between the Political Executive and the Permanent Executive
- Political Executive in India and U.S.A. - a Comparative Study
- Powers and Functions of Executive Heads of U.S.A. (President)
- Changing Role of the Indian Prime Minister in the Coalition Era (1996 Onwards) - with Reference to Increasing Role of Regional Political Parties
- Introduction and Composition of Judiciary
- Conditions of Independence of Judiciary
- Judiciary in India and U.S.A
- Judicial Review
- Principles and Critical Evaluation with Special Reference to U.S.A. and India
- Judicial Activism
- Judicial Restraint
- Supreme Court - Composition, Qualifications of Judges, Appointment
- Characteristics of Indian Constitution
- Salient Features of the Indian Constitution - Written and Comprehensive
- Federal Structure with Unitary Spirit
- Partly Rigid and Partly Flexible
- Single Citizenship
- Single Integrated and Independent Judiciary
- Emergency Powers
- Special Provisions for Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes.
Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles
Democracy in India - a Perspective of the Challenges Faced
- Challenges Faced by the Indian Democracy - Caste
- Challenges Faced by the Indian Democracy - Communalism
- Challenges Faced by the Indian Democracy - Regionalism
- Challenges Faced by the Indian Democracy - Political Violence
- Strengthening Indian Democracy - Measures to Overcome the Challenges Faced by Indian Democracy
Constitution of India visualised village panchayats as units of self-government. Think over the situation described in the following statements and explain how do these situations strengthen or weaken the panchayats in becoming units of self-government.
a. The government of a State has allowed a big company to establish a huge steel plant. Many villages would be adversely affected by the steel plant. Gram Sabha of one of the affected villages passed a resolution that before establishing any big industries in the region, village people must be consulted and their grievances should be redressed.
b. The government has decided that 20 % of all its expenditure would be done through the panchayats.
c. A village panchayat kept on demanding funds for a building for the village school, the government officials turned down their proposal saying that funds are allocated for certain other schemes and cannot be spent otherwise.
d. The government divided a village Dungarpur into two and made a part of village Jamuna and Sohana. Now village Dungarpur has ceased to exist in government’s books.
e. A village panchayat observed that water sources of their region are depleting fast. They decided to mobilise village youth to do some voluntary work and revive the old village ponds and wells.
Suppose you are entrusted to evolve a local government plan of a State, what powers would you endow to the village panchayats to function as units of self-government? Mention any five powers and the justification in two lines for each of them for giving those powers.
Read the provisions of the 73rd Amendment. Which of the following concerns does this amendment address?
The following are different justifications given in favour of the local government. Give them ranking and explain why you attach greater significance to a particular rationale than the others. According to you, on which of these rationales the decision of the Gram panchayat of Vengaivasal village was based? How?
a. The government can complete the projects with lesser cost with the involvement of the local community.
b. The development plans made by the local people will have greater acceptability than those made by the government officers.
c. People know their area, needs, problems, and priorities. By collective participation, they should discuss and take decisions about their life.
d. It is difficult for the common people to contact their representatives of the State or the national legislature.
Which of the following according to you involves decentralisation?
Why are other options not sufficient for decentralisation?
A student of Delhi University, Raghavendra Parpanna, wanted to study the role of decentralisation in decision-making about primary education. He asked some questions to the villagers. These questions are given below. If you were among those villagers, what answer would you give to each of these questions?
A meeting of the Gram Sabha is to be called to discuss what steps should be taken to ensure that every child of the village goes to the school.
a. How would you decide a suitable day for the meeting? Think who would be able to attend / not attend the meeting because of your choice.
(i) A day specified by the BDO or the collector
(ii) Day of the village haat
(iv) Naag Panchami/Sankranti
b. What is a suitable venue for the meeting? Why?
(i) Venue suggested by the circular of the district collector.
(ii) Religious place in the village.
(iii) Dalit Mohalla
(iv) Upper caste Tola
(v) Village school
c. In the Gram Sabha meeting firstly a circular sent by the district collector was read. It suggested what steps should be taken to organise an education rally and what should be its route. The meeting did not discuss the children who never come to school or about girls’ education, or the condition of the school building and the timing of the school. No women teacher attended the meeting as it was held on Sunday.
What do you think about these proceedings as an instance of people’s participation?
d. Imagine your class as the Gram Sabha. Discuss the agenda of the meeting and suggest some steps to realise the goal.