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States of Matter - The Liquid State

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notes

States of Matter:

Liquid:

  • Constituent particles are less closely packed.
  • Force of attraction between particles is less strong.
  • Kinetic energy between particles is more than that in solids.
  • Do not have definite shape but definite volume.
  • Density is lower than solids and can diffuse.
  • Almost incompressible.

At normal conditions of temperature, pressure, and volume liquids generally, show the above-mentioned features. When the physical conditions change the basic characters of liquids also undergo a drastic change. Apart from the above characteristics, liquids also show the following properties:

Vapour Pressure:

When a liquid is filled in a container, its walls are occupied by the vapors from that liquid. Liquids show the unique property of turning into vapors, as soon as the temperature rises! Generally, vapors from the aqueous substance occupy the walls of the unfilled part of the container and exert a pressure on the walls of that container, this pressure is called the vapor pressure.

Initially, the vapor pressure increases but after some time it becomes constant. Gradually, an equilibrium between the liquid phase and the vapor phase is established. The vapor pressure at the point of equilibrium is known as the equilibrium vapor pressure or saturated vapor pressure. The whole phenomenon of vapor formation solely depends on the temperature and hence tends to increase with the increasing temperature.

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