Topics
Physical World and Measurement
Physical World
Units and Measurements
 International System of Units
 Measurement of Length
 Measurement of Mass
 Measurement of Time
 Accuracy Precision of Instruments and Errors in Measurement
 Significant Figures
 Dimensions of Physical Quantities
 Dimensional Formulae and Dimensional Equations
 Dimensional Analysis and Its Applications
 Need for Measurement
 Units of Measurement
 Fundamental and Derived Units
 Length, Mass and Time Measurements
 Introduction of Units and Measurements
Kinematics
Motion in a Plane
 Scalars and Vectors
 Multiplication of Vectors by a Real Number
 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors — Graphical Method
 Resolution of Vectors
 Vector Addition – Analytical Method
 Motion in a Plane
 Motion in a Plane with Constant Acceleration
 Projectile Motion
 Uniform Circular Motion
 General Vectors and Their Notations
 Motion in a Plane  Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity
 Rectangular Components
 Scalar and Vector Product of Vectors
 Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions
 Cases of Uniform Velocity
 Cases of Uniform Acceleration Projectile Motion
 Motion in a Plane  Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration
 Angular Velocity
 Introduction
Motion in a Straight Line
 Position, Path Length and Displacement
 Average Velocity and Average Speed
 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
 Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion
 Acceleration
 Relative Velocity
 Elementary Concepts of Differentiation and Integration for Describing Motion
 Uniform and NonUniform Motion
 Uniformly Accelerated Motion
 Positiontime, Velocitytime and Accelerationtime Graphs
 Motion in a Straight Line  Positiontime Graph
 Relations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion (Graphical Treatment)
 Introduction
Laws of Motion
 Aristotle’s Fallacy
 The Law of Inertia
 Newton'S First Law of Motion
 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
 Newton's Third Law of Motion
 Conservation of Momentum
 Equilibrium of a Particle
 Common Forces in Mechanics
 Circular Motion
 Solving Problems in Mechanics
 Static and Kinetic Friction
 Laws of Friction
 Inertia
 Intuitive Concept of Force
 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion  Centripetal Force
 Examples of Circular Motion (Vehicle on a Level Circular Road, Vehicle on a Banked Road)
 Lubrication  (Laws of Motion)
 Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum and Its Applications
 Rolling Friction
 Introduction
Work, Energy and Power
 Introduction of Work, Energy and Power
 Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy: the WorkEnergy Theorem
 Kinetic Energy
 Work Done by a Constant Force and a Variable Force
 Concept of Work
 The Concept of Potential Energy
 The Conservation of Mechanical Energy
 Potential Energy of a Spring
 Various Forms of Energy : the Law of Conservation of Energy
 Power
 Concept of Collisions
 Non  Conservative Forces  Motion in a Vertical Circle
Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
System of Particles and Rotational Motion
 Motion  Rigid Body
 Centre of Mass
 Motion of Centre of Mass
 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles
 Vector Product of Two Vectors
 Angular Velocity and Its Relation with Linear Velocity
 Torque and Angular Momentum
 Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies
 Moment of Inertia
 Theorems of Perpendicular and Parallel Axes
 Kinematics of Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis
 Dynamics of Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis
 Angular Momentum in Case of Rotation About a Fixed Axis
 Rolling Motion
 Momentum Conservation and Centre of Mass Motion
 Centre of Mass of a Rigid Body
 Centre of Mass of a Uniform Rod
 Rigid Body Rotation
 Equations of Rotational Motion
 Comparison of Linear and Rotational Motions
 Values of Moments of Inertia for Simple Geometrical Objects (No Derivation)
Gravitation
 Kepler’S Laws
 Universal Law of Gravitation
 The Gravitational Constant
 Acceleration Due to Gravity of the Earth
 Acceleration Due to Gravity Below and Above the Surface of Earth
 Acceleration Due to Gravity and Its Variation with Altitude and Depth
 Gravitational Potential Energy
 Escape Speed
 Earth Satellites
 Energy of an Orbiting Satellite
 Geostationary and Polar Satellites
 Weightlessness
 Escape Velocity
 Orbital Velocity of a Satellite
Properties of Bulk Matter
Mechanical Properties of Fluids
 Concept of Pressure
 Pascal's Law
 Variation of Pressure with Depth
 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
 Hydraulic Machines
 STREAMLINE FLOW
 Bernoulli’S Principle
 Viscosity
 Reynolds Number
 Surface Tension
 Effect of Gravity on Fluid Pressure
 Terminal Velocity
 Critical Velocity
 Excess of Pressure Across a Curved Surface
 Introduction to Fluid Machanics
 Archimedes' Principle
 Stokes' Law
 Equation of Continuity
 Torricelli'S Law
Thermal Properties of Matter
 Temperature and Heat
 Measurement of Temperature
 Idealgas Equation and Absolute Temperature
 Thermal Expansion
 Specific Heat Capacity
 Calorimetry
 Change of State  Latent Heat Capacity
 Conduction
 Convection
 Radiation
 Newton’s Law of Cooling
 Qualitative Ideas of Blackbody Radiation
 Wein'S Displacement Law
 Stefan's Law
 Anomalous Expansion of Water
 Liquids and Gases
 Thermal Expansion of Solids
 Green House Effect
Mechanical Properties of Solids
Thermodynamics
 Thermal Equilibrium
 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
 Heat, Internal Energy and Work
 First Law of Thermodynamics
 Specific Heat Capacity
 Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State
 Thermodynamic Processes
 Heat Engines
 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
 Carnot Engine
 Isothermal Processes
 Adiabatic Processes
Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases
Kinetic Theory
 Molecular Nature of Matter
 Behaviour of Gases
 Equation of State of a Perfect Gas
 Work Done in Compressing a Gas
 Introduction of Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas
 Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature
 Law of Equipartition of Energy
 Specific Heat Capacities  Gases
 Mean Free Path
 Kinetic Theory of Gases  Concept of Pressure
 Kinetic Theory of Gases Assumptions
 rms Speed of Gas Molecules
 Degrees of Freedom
 Avogadro's Number
Oscillations and Waves
Oscillations
 Periodic and Oscillatory Motions
 Simple Harmonic Motion
 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion
 Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion
 Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion
 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
 Some Systems Executing Simple Harmonic Motion
 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion
 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
 Displacement as a Function of Time
 Periodic Functions
 Oscillations  Frequency
Waves
description

Physics  Scope and Excitement
notes
SCOPE AND EXCITEMENT OF PHYSICS
Scope:
Physics has a very wide scope. There are two domains of interest which are macroscopic domain and microscopic domain. The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or processes are of a size that is measurable and observable by the naked eye. The microscopic scale is the scale of size or length used to describe objects smaller than those that are easily be seen by the naked eye and which require a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
Physics tries to reach out the complete understanding of the universe and thus the various natural phenomena. It attempts to find the elementary particles that make the matter, forces that guide the phenomena and the various forms of energy.
Physics has its scope in Classical physics and Modern physics.
Classical Physics
Classical physics is a traditional physics. Galileo and Newton are the two scientists who brought about the birth of classical physics. Classical physics mainly deals with forces in nature. It is concerned with the matter and energy under normal conditions. It deals in terms of human observation.
Classical physics has sub branches like mechanics, thermodynamics, electrodynamics and optics. Classical mechanics can be also called as “Newtonian Mechanics”.
Mechanics is one branch of classical physics that deals with the study of motion of various objects and particles. It deals with the study of forces that act on bodies, whether it is at static or in motion. The three sub branches are Statics, Dynamics and Kinematics. Statics deals with the forces that act on bodies at rest. Dynamics deals with the forces that affect the body in motion. Kinematics refers to the description and analysis on the cause of forces.
Acoustics Physics is another branch of classical physics. It is concerned with the study of the production of sound waves. The branch Optics refers to the study of the light. It has other sub branches. Physical optics involves the study on the production, nature and properties of light. Physiological optics refers on the part that is played by light in vision. Geometrical optics deals with the refraction and reflection of light as experienced in the study of mirrors and lenses. These principles were later used to focus light in telescopes, cameras and microscopes.
Thermodynamics is the study of the connection between heat and other forms of energy. The effects of changes in temperature, pressure and volume on physical system and their relation to energy and work will all be covered under thermodynamics. The kinetic theory of gases is based upon classical thermodynamics. It was also possible to increase the efficiency of steam engines by thermodynamics in early days. It mentions the existence of quantity called entropy.
Electromagnetism deals with the study of the properties of the electric current and magnetism and their relationship. Electrostatics refers to the electric charges at rest. Electrodynamics deals with the moving charges. Magneto statics deals with the magnetic poles at rest. The relationship between electromagnetism and mechanics can be described by the special theory of relativity. Maxwell’s equations are derived from the principle of relativity and the principle of stationary action in mechanics.
Modern Physics
Modern physics refers to the behaviour of matter and energy under extreme conditions. It has several branches. Atomic and nuclear physics is the study of the components, structure and behaviour of the nucleus of the atom. Quantum physics is concerned with the study of the individual nature of the phenomena at the atomic levels. It focuses on the indivisible units or discrete units of energy called Quanta which is as described by the quantum theory. Quantum mechanics is one branch that comprises the atomic and sub atomic systems and also their interaction with radiation.
When an electron moves from one allowed level to another, an amount of energy is either emitted or absorbed. Here the frequency is directly proportional to the energy difference between two levels. The photo electric effect confirmed the quantization of light. Louie de Broglie has found out that not only light waves exhibit particle like nature, but also particles exhibit wave like nature. An important discovery of quantum theory is the uncertainty principle which places a theoretical limit on the accuracy of certain measurements.
Relativistic physics is the study of phenomena that takes place in the frame of reference that is in motion with respect to an observer.
Solid state physics is the study of all properties of solid materials. It comprises of things like electrical conduction in crystals of semiconductors and metals, superconductivity and photo conductivity.
Condensed matter physics is a topic in solid state physics. It is the study of all properties of condensed materials which are solids, liquids, and dense gas, thus developing new materials with better properties. From this evolved the great technologies like computers, lasers etc.
Astrophysics is the physics in the universe that deals with the nature of stars and other celestial bodies in astronomy.
Biophysics is the study of the physical behaviours of biological processes.
Chemical Physics is the science of physical relations in chemistry.
Econophysics deals with the physical processes and their relations in the science of economy.
Geophysics is the science of physical relations that happens in our planet.
Medical physics which is also known as bio medical physics is the application, prevention, diagnosis and treatment in the medical field.
Plasma physics is the study of the plasma.
Low temperature physics is the study of the production and maintenance of temperatures down to almost absolute zero, and the various phenomena which occur only at that temperature. Thus we can say that the scope of physics is very vast.
Excitement of Physics:
The excitement of physics comes from the challenge in conducting new experiments for revealing the secrets of nature. The scientific progress is not only qualitative but also quantitative analysis. The basics levels, laws and theories of physics are universal. There is good strategy of approximation. A good strategy is means that we will focus and observe on the necessary facts. Then we will discover and later do the needful corrections to construct a welldefined theory. We will apply the laws of physics for practical purposes.
Physics is a huge subject that covers many different topics that ranges from galaxies in the depths of space to the sub atomic particles.