#### Topics

##### Mathematics

##### Knowing Our Numbers

- Introduction to Knowing Our Numbers
- Comparing Numbers
- Compare Numbers in Ascending and Descending Order
- Compare Number by Forming Numbers from a Given Digits
- Compare Numbers by Shifting Digits
- Introducing a 5 Digit Number - 10,000
- Revisiting Place Value of Numbers
- Expansion Form of Numbers
- Introducing the Six Digit Number - 1,00,000
- Larger Number of Digits 7 and Above
- An Aid in Reading and Writing Large Numbers
- Using Commas in Indian and International Number System
- Round off and Estimation of Numbers
- To Estimate Sum Or Difference
- Estimating Products of Numbers
- Simplification of Expression by Using Brackets
- BODMAS - Rules for Simplifying an Expression
- Roman Numbers System and Its Application

##### Whole Numbers

- Concept for Natural Numbers
- Concept for Whole Numbers
- Successor and Predecessor of Whole Number
- Operation of Whole Numbers on Number Line
- Properties of Whole Numbers
- Closure Property of Whole Number
- Associativity Property of Whole Numbers
- Division by Zero
- Commutativity Property of Whole Number
- Distributivity Property of Whole Numbers
- Identity of Addition and Multiplication of Whole Numbers
- Patterns in Whole Numbers

##### Playing with Numbers

- Arranging the Objects in Rows and Columns
- Factors and Multiples
- Concept of Perfect Number
- Concept of Prime Numbers
- Concept of Co-prime Number
- Concept of Twin Prime Numbers
- Concept of Even and Odd Number
- Concept of Composite Number
- Concept of Sieve of Eratosthenes
- Tests for Divisibility of Numbers
- Divisibility by 10
- Divisibility by 5
- Divisibility by 2
- Divisibility by 3
- Divisibility by 6
- Divisibility by 4
- Divisibility by 8
- Divisibility by 9
- Divisibility by 11
- Common Factor
- Common Multiples
- Some More Divisibility Rules
- Prime Factorisation
- Highest Common Factor
- Lowest Common Multiple

##### Basic Geometrical Ideas

- Concept for Basic Geometrical Ideas (2 -d)
- Concept of Points
- Concept of Line
- Concept of Line Segment
- Concept of Ray
- Concept of Intersecting Lines
- Parallel Lines
- Concept of Curves
- Different Types of Curves - Closed Curve, Open Curve, Simple Curve.
- Concept of Polygons - Side, Vertex, Adjacent Sides, Adjacent Vertices and Diagonal
- Concept of Angle - Arms, Vertex, Interior and Exterior Region
- Concept of Triangles - Sides, Angles, Vertices, Interior and Exterior of Triangle
- Concept of Quadrilaterals - Sides, Adjacent Sides, Opposite Sides, Angle, Adjacent Angles and Opposite Angles
- Concept of Circle - Centre, Radius, Diameter, Arc, Sector, Chord, Segment, Semicircle, Circumference, Interior and Exterior, Concentric Circles

##### Understanding Elementary Shapes

- Introduction to Understanding Elementary Shapes
- Measuring Line Segments
- Concept of Angle - Arms, Vertex, Interior and Exterior Region
- Right, Straight, and Complete Angle by Direction and Clock
- Acute, Right, Obtuse, and Reflex angles
- Measuring Angles
- Perpendicular Line and Perpendicular Bisector
- Classification of Triangles (On the Basis of Sides, and of Angles)
- Equilateral Triangle
- Isosceles Triangles
- Scalene Triangle
- Acute Angled Triangle
- Obtuse Angled Triangle
- Right Angled Triangle
- Types of Quadrilaterals
- Properties of a Square
- Properties of Rectangle
- Properties of a Parallelogram
- Properties of Rhombus
- Properties of Trapezium
- Three Dimensional Shapes
- Prism
- Concept of Pyramid

##### Integers

##### Fractions

##### Decimals

- Concept of Decimal Numbers
- Place Value in the Context of Decimal Fraction
- Concept of Tenths, Hundredths and Thousandths in Decimal
- Representing Decimals on the Number Line
- Interconversion of Fraction and Decimal
- Comparing Decimal Numbers
- Using Decimal Number as Units
- Addition of Decimal Numbers
- Subtraction of Decimals Fraction

##### Data Handling

##### Mensuration

##### Algebra

##### Ratio and Proportion

##### Symmetry

##### Practical Geometry

- Introduction to Practical Geometry
- Construction of a Circle When Its Radius is Known
- Construction of a Line Segment of a Given Length
- Constructing a Copy of a Given Line Segment
- Drawing a Perpendicular to a Line at a Point on the Line
- Drawing a Perpendicular to a Line Through a Point Not on It
- Drawing the Perpendicular Bisector of a Line Segment
- Constructing an Angle of a Given Measure
- Constructing a Copy of an Angle of Unknown Measure
- Constructing a Bisector of an Angle
- Angles of Special Measures - 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°, and 120°

## Notes

**Round off and Estimation of Numbers:**

There are a number of situations in which we do not need the exact quantity but need only a reasonable guess or an estimate

For example, India drew with Pakistan in a hockey match watched by approximately 51,000 spectators in the stadium and 40 million television viewers worldwide.

Were there exactly 51,000 spectators in the stadium? or did exactly 40 million viewers watched the match on television?

Obviously, not. The word approximately itself shows that the number of people were near about these numbers. Clearly, 51,000 could be 50,800 or 51,300 but not 70,000. Similarly, 40 million implies much more than 39 million but quite less than 41 million but certainly not 50 million.

**Estimating outcomes of number situations:**

There are many situations where we need to find answers more quickly.

For example, when you go to a fair or the market, you find a variety of attractive things which you want to buy. You need to quickly decide what you can buy. So, you need to estimate the amount you need. It is the sum of the prices of things you want to buy.

A trader is to receive money from two sources. The money he is to receive is Rs. 13,569 from one source and Rs. 26,785 from another. He has to pay Rs. 37,000 to someone else by the evening. He rounds off the numbers to their nearest thousands and quickly works out the rough answer.

In number of situations, we have to estimate the outcome of number operations. This is done by rounding off the numbers involved and getting a quick, rough answer.

The procedure depends on the degree of accuracy required and how quickly the estimate is needed. The most important thing is, how sensible the guessed answer would be.