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Roman Numbers System and Its Application

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notes

Roman Numbers:

  • We use the Hindu-Arabic system of numerals. Another system of writing numerals is the Roman system.
  • The Roman numerals: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X denote 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 respectively.

I V X L C D M
1 5 10 50 100 500 1000

The rules for the system are:

  • If a symbol is repeated, its value is added as many times as it occurs:
    i.e., XX is 20 and XXX is 30.
  • A symbol is not repeated more than three times. But the symbols V, L and D are never repeated.

  • If a symbol of smaller value is written to the right of a symbol of greater value, its value gets added to the value of the greater symbol.
    LXV = 50 + 10 + 5 = 65.

  • If a symbol of a smaller value is written to the left of a symbol of greater value, its value is subtracted from the value of the greater symbol.
    XL= 50 – 10 = 40, XC = 100 – 10 = 90.

  • The symbols V, L, and D are never written to the left of a symbol of greater value, i.e. V, L, and D are never subtracted. The symbol I can be subtracted from V and X only. The symbol X can be subtracted from L, M, and C only.

  • Following these rules we get,

    1 I
    2 II
    3 III
    4 IV
    5 V
    6 VI
    7 VII
    8 VIII
    9 IX
    10 X
    20 XX
    30 XXX
    40 XL
    50 L
    60 LX
    70 LXX
    80 LXXX
    90 XC
    100 C
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