Karnataka SSLC Karnataka Secondary Education Examination Board

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Reproductive Health - Need and Methods of Family Planning

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Reproductive health means a total well being in all aspects of reproductive i.e. physical emotional, social and behavioural.

Sexually transmitted disease (STDs):-

-Many disease can be sexually transmitted such as:

(i) Bacterial: Gonorrhoea and syphilis

(ii) Viral: Warts and HIV- AIDS


-Use of condom prevents these infections to some extent.

-Contraception: It is the avoidance of pregnancy, can be achieved by preventing the fertilisation of ova.


Methods of contraception

(i) Physical barrier:

-To prevent union of egg and sperm

-Use of condoms, cervical caps and diaphragm.

(ii) Chemical methods:

-Use of oral pills

-These change hormonal balance of body so that eggs are not released

-May have side effects

(iii)Intrauterine contraceptive device. (IUCD)

-Copper – T or loop is placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy

(iv)Surgical Methods:

-In males the vas deferens is blocked to prevent sperm transfer called vasectomy.

-In females the fallopian tube is blocked to prevent egg transfer called tubectomy.

Female Foeticide:

-The practice of killing a female child inside the womb is called female foeticide

-For a healthy society, a balanced sex ratio is needed that can be achieved by educating people to avoid malpractices like female foeticide and prenatal sex determination.

-Pernatal sex determination is a legal offence in our country so as to maintain a balanced sex ratio.


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