Population in India




Population: The total number of people residing in a country at a specified period of time is called the 'Population' of that country.
Census: A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. 


Population in India 

  • The total number of people residing in a country at a specified period of time is called the 'Population' of that country. 
  • Population of any country is a valuable resource. The qualitative characteristics of a population are crucial for a nation’s economic and social progress.
  • People are vital for the development of the economy and society. People create and consume resources and are themselves resources with varying quality.  Coal was just a piece of rock until people invented technology to extract it and turn it into a resource.
  • Natural happenings, such as a flood or a Tsunami, become a 'disaster' only when they affect a densely populated village or town.
  • As a result, population is the most important aspect of social studies. It is the reference point from which all other elements are observed and derive significance and meaning. 'Resources,' calamities,' and 'disasters' all have meaning only in relation to humans. Their numbers, distribution, growth, and characteristics or qualities provide the fundamental framework for understanding and appreciating all aspects of the environment.
  • Humans are both producers and consumers of the earth's resources. As a result, it is important to understand how many people live in a country, where they live, how and why their numbers are increasing, and what are their characteristics. The Indian census provides us with information about our country's population.
  • India is the world's second most populous country, after China. India has only 2.4 percent of the world's land area, but it has 17.5 percent of the world's population. It demonstrates that India's population proportion is far greater than its land area proportion. 


  • A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. 
  •  The first census in India was held in 1872. However, the first complete census was taken in 1881. Since then, censuses have been held every ten years. The Indian Census is the most detailed source of demographic, social, and economic information.
  • Population census is the total process of collecting, compiling, analysing or otherwise disseminating demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specific time, of all persons in a country or a well-defined part of a country.
  • It happens once every ten years. The census data are used by the government for administration, planning, policy formulation, management, and evaluation of various programmes.


Do you know? 

In India the first census was carried out in the year 1872. But the first complete and synchronous census was conducted in 1881. And the 2011 census represents the fifteenth census of India.


Study the indices of density maps of both the countries. What difference do you find? What conclusions can you draw?

India Population Density

Population density in Brazil

The study of the indices of density maps of Brazil and India clearly explains the distribution of population among the various states of both the countries.

Brazil is three times bigger than India in terms of its area. But it accounts for only 2.8 per cent of the world’s population whereas India has 16.8 per cent of the world’s population.

The northern and southern states of India are densely populated whereas the central states have comparatively less population. The northeastern states are sparsely populated.

It can be understood that the total population of states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana and Punjab is almost equal to that of Brazil’s total population.

The country of Brazil has a denser population in its eastern states. The western and northern states are very sparsely populated.

If you would like to contribute notes or other learning material, please submit them using the button below.

      Forgot password?
Use app×