Parts of Flower




Parts of a flower:

A diagrammatic representation of the lateral side (L.S.) of a flower

The different parts of a flower are mentioned below:

A) Vegetative part of a flower:

The vegetative part of a flower consists of the calyx and corolla. The calyx and corolla are referred to as accessory whorls of the flower because they do not participate in the reproduction process but rather help it.

  1. Calyx - It is the outermost whorl of a flower. It consists of sepals, which are tiny green-coloured parts at the base of the flower. It protects the flower from any sort of mechanical injuries and desiccation. Some plants have coloured sepals the calyx are called petaloid. In many flowers, the sepals drop off at an early stage of development (i.e., before the flower even opens fully), they are known as caducous. Deciduous are the sepals that drop off after fertilization. The persistent sepals remain up to the fruiting stage. If the sepals are free the calyx is called polysepalous, and if they are united it is called gamosepalous.
  2. Corolla - It consists of petals of the flower. It is the second whorl of a flower. It attracts the pollinators which help to reproduce by transferring the pollen grain. It also protects the reproductive parts of a flower. Calyx and Corolla are collectively known as ‘perianth’.

B) Reproductive parts of a flower:

The androecium and gynoecium are known as essential whorls because they are directly related to reproduction.
  1. Androecium - It is the male reproductive part of a flower, comprising stamens and it is the third main whorl of a flower. Each stamen comprises two parts, anther and filament. Anther is a bilobed (2 lobes) sac-like structure which is supported by the filament. The anther is an important part as it produces the pollen grains by performing meiosis. The filament is a long and slender stalk which is attached to the anther.
  2. Gynoecium - It is the female reproductive part of a flower. It is the fourth whorls of a flower situated in the central position of the thalamus. It consists of a pistil and its components are stigma, style, and ovary. The ovary is a chamber where the egg or ovule is stored for fertilization. Stigma is attached to the top of the carpel; it is the landing site of a pollen grain. Style is a tube-like structure that connects the ovary and the stigma. It transfers the pollen grain to the ovary.
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