#### Topics

##### Number Systems

##### Number Systems

##### Algebra

##### Polynomials

##### Linear Equations in Two Variables

##### Algebraic Expressions

##### Algebraic Identities

##### Coordinate Geometry

##### Geometry

##### Introduction to Euclid’S Geometry

##### Lines and Angles

##### Triangles

##### Quadrilaterals

- Concept of Quadrilaterals - Sides, Adjacent Sides, Opposite Sides, Angle, Adjacent Angles and Opposite Angles
- Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
- Types of Quadrilaterals
- Another Condition for a Quadrilateral to Be a Parallelogram
- The Mid-point Theorem
- Property: The Opposite Sides of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Length.
- Theorem: A Diagonal of a Parallelogram Divides It into Two Congruent Triangles.
- Theorem : If Each Pair of Opposite Sides of a Quadrilateral is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The Opposite Angles of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Measure.
- Theorem: If in a Quadrilateral, Each Pair of Opposite Angles is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. (at the point of their intersection)
- Theorem : If the Diagonals of a Quadrilateral Bisect Each Other, Then It is a Parallelogram

##### Area

##### Circles

- Concept of Circle - Centre, Radius, Diameter, Arc, Sector, Chord, Segment, Semicircle, Circumference, Interior and Exterior, Concentric Circles
- Angle Subtended by a Chord at a Point
- Perpendicular from the Centre to a Chord
- Circles Passing Through One, Two, Three Points
- Equal Chords and Their Distances from the Centre
- Angle Subtended by an Arc of a Circle
- Cyclic Quadrilateral

##### Constructions

##### Mensuration

##### Areas - Heron’S Formula

##### Surface Areas and Volumes

##### Statistics and Probability

##### Statistics

##### Probability

#### text

**Axiom :** If a ray stands on a line, then the sum of two adjacent angles so formed is 180°.

The sum of two adjacent angles is 180°, then they are called a linear pair of angles. It is given that ‘a ray stands on a line’. From this ‘given’, we have concluded that ‘the sum of two adjacent angles so formed is 180°’.

The ‘conclusion’ of Axiom as ‘given’ and the ‘given’ as the ‘conclusion’. So it becomes:

(A) If the sum of two adjacent angles is 180°, then a ray stands on a line (that is, the non-common arms form a line).

The Axiom and statement (A) are in a sense the reverse of each others. We call each as converse of the other.

**Axiom:** If the sum of two adjacent angles is 180°, then the non-common arms of the angles form a line. For obvious reasons, the two axioms above together is called the Linear Pair Axiom. Two lines intersect, the vertically opposite angles are equal.

#### theorem

**Theorem:** If two lines intersect each other, then the vertically opposite angles are equal. **Proof :** In the statement above, it is given that ‘two lines intersect each other’. So, let AB and CD be two lines intersecting at O as shown in Fig.

They lead to two pairs of vertically opposite angles, namely,

(i) ∠ AOC and ∠ BOD (ii) ∠ AOD and ∠ BOC.

We need to prove that ∠ AOC = ∠ BOD and ∠ AOD = ∠ BOC.

Now, ray OA stands on line CD.

Therefore, ∠ AOC + ∠ AOD = 180° (Linear pair axiom) (1)

Can we write ∠ AOD + ∠ BOD = 180° (2)

From (1) and (2), we can write

∠ AOC + ∠ AOD = ∠ AOD + ∠ BOD

This implies that ∠ AOC = ∠ BOD

Similarly, it can be proved that ∠AOD = ∠BOC.