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Types of Element: Metals - Extracting Metals in the Middle of the Activity Series

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The metals in the middle of the activity series such as iron, zinc, lead, copper, are moderately reactive. These are usually present as sulphides or carbonates in nature.

It is easier to obtain a metal from its oxide, as compared to its sulphides and carbonates. Therefore, prior to reduction, the metal sulphides and carbonates must be converted into metal oxides.

The sulphide ores are converted into oxides by heating strongly in the presence of excess air. This process is known as roasting.

The carbonate ores are changed into oxides by heating strongly in limited air. This process is known as calcination.

The chemical reaction that takes place during roasting and calcination of zinc ores can be shown as follows –



The metal oxides are then reduced to the corresponding metals by using suitable reducing agents such as carbon.

For example, when zinc oxide is heated with carbon, it is reduced to metallic zinc.

ZnO(s) + C(s) → Zn(s) + CO(g)

Obtaining metals from their compounds is also a reduction process.

Reducing agents

Besides using carbon (coke) to reduce metal oxides to metals, sometimes displacement reactions can also be used. The highly reactive metals such as sodium, calcium, aluminium, etc., are used as reducing agents because they can displace metals of lower reactivity from their compounds. For example, when manganese dioxide is heated with aluminium powder,

In the above reaction manganese dioxide is reduced and aluminium is oxidised to form aluminium oxide.

These displacement reactions are highly exothermic. The amount of heat evolved is so large that the metals are produced in the molten state. In fact, the reaction of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) with aluminium is used to join railway tracks or cracked machine parts. This reaction is known as the thermit reaction.

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