Location and Extent
Physiography and Drainage
- Physical Divisions of India
- The North Indian Mountains
- The Himalayas
- North Indian Plains
- The Peninsular Indian Plateau
- The Indian Coastal Plains
- The Indian Islands
- Physiography of Brazil
- Brazilian Highlands
- The Great Escarpment in Brazil
- Coastline of Brazil
- Brazilian Plains
- Brazilian Island
- Drainage of Brazil
- Drainage Systems of India
- Himalayan Rivers
- Peninsular Rivers
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife
Economy and Occupations
Tourism, Transport and Communication
Geography - Physical Divisions of India
Identification of Physical divisions
Geography - North Indian Mountains
Geography - North Indian Plain Region
Geography - Peninsular Plateau Region
Chhotta Nagpur Plateau
Geography - Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats
Geography - Coastal Region
Eastern coastal plain
Western coastal plain
Geography - Indian Islands
Geography - Practical 1
Geography - Practical 2
Two dimensional diagrams
One dimensional diagrams
Economics - Introduction of an Economy
Introduction of an Economy
Economics - Basic problems of an economy solution
Economics - Inflation
Effects of inflation
Measures of Inflation
Causes of inflation
Economics - Public distribution system and consumer protection
Public Distribution system - meaning and explanation
Objectives of Public Distribution system
Drawbacks of Public Distribution system
Progress of Public Distribution system
- Ganga Plains
- Brahmaputra Plains
- Rajastan Plains
- Punjab Plains
- Plains: A plain is a broad area of relatively flat land.
- Doab: Doab is a tract of land between two rivers.
The Great Northern Plains:
- The northern plain has been formed by the interplay of three major river systems, namely the Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra, as well as their tributaries.
- It is mostly flat and low lying area.
- They cover one-fifth of the area but house half of South Asia's population. These plains are the focal point of its political, economic, and cultural activities.
- The plain is between 240 to 320 kilometres wide and 2,400 kilometres long. From east to west, it widens. Its area is more than 7 lakh square kilometres.
- This plain is formed of alluvial soil. This fertile plain was formed over millions of years by the deposition of alluvium in a vast basin at the foothills of the Himalaya.
- It is an agriculturally productive part of India due to its rich soil cover, adequate water supply, and favourable climate.
- The Northern Plains of India are divided into four major regions based on sediment deposition by various rivers and topographical features:
1) Ganga Plains
2) Brahmaputra Plains
3) Rajastan Plains
4) Punjab Plains
1. Rajasthan Plains:
- The Thar desert is divided into two main regions. The Actual Desert Region (Marusthali) and the Semi-Desert Region are the names of these areas (Bhangar).
- Rajasthan Plains is situated west of the Aravalli range.
- It has an area of approximately 1,75,000 square kilometers.
- The river Luni and the long vanished river Saraswati have deposited sediment that has created the Rajasthan plain.
- Rajasthan is home to various salt lakes. Near Jaipur, the most notable lake is Pushkar Lake, also known as Sambhar Salt Lake.
- The Thar desert, often referred to as the Great Indian desert, is a large arid region in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent.
- It has a total area of 2,00,000 km2, and it serves as a natural border between Pakistan and India. It is the 7th largest desert on earth.
- The desert occupies `2/3` of Rajastan state and is located in the western portion of the Aravalli range.
2. Punjab - Haryana Plains:
- The Western part of the Northern Plain is referred to as the Punjab Plains.
- These plains are located in Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh in India.
- About 1.75 lakh square kilometres are covered by this plain.
- The majority of this plain is in Pakistan, formed by the Indus and its tributaries including the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Satluj.
- The plains are sloping in a westward direction.
- The plain serves as a water - divide (doab). It separates two major watersheds: the Yamuna - Sutlej and Ganga - Yamuna.
- The doabs of the lndus' five tributaries − Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas − are a notable feature of these plains. In fact, the name Punjab is derived from these, i.e., the land of five rivers.
- Agriculture is widely practiced in this area due to the rich soil conditions.
3. Ganga Plains:
- It extends from Bangladesh in the east to the Yamuna River in the west.
- Approximately 3.75 sq.km. make up this plain. It covers the states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Delhi, and a portion of Jharkhand and West Bengal.
- This enormous plain in India was formed by the sediments of the Ganga and its tributaries, including the Ghaghra, Gandak, Kosi, Yamuna, Chambal, Betwa, and others.
- It is the largest plain in India.
- The upper, middle, and lower Ganga plains all have an east to south-east slope.
4. Brahmaputra Plains:
- The Brahmaputra plain is located in the east, specifically in Assam.
- It is formed by the deposits of river Brahmaputra.
- It has a land area of approximately 56,275 sq.km.
- These plains give rise to alluvial fans and marshy areas.
- There are also a number of riverine islands, including Majuli, the world's largest river island.
- The majority of the West Bengal State in both India and Bangladesh makes up the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta. It's called the Sundarbans. It is regarded as the biggest delta in the entire world.
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