Renaissance in Europe and Development of Science
India and European Colonialism
Colonialism and the Marathas
India: Social and Religious Reforms
Indian Struggle Against Colonialism
- Indian Struggle Against Colonialism - Struggles before 1857
- Indian Struggle Against Colonialism - Freedom Struggle of 1857
- Background of Founding the Indian National Congress
- Founding of the Indian National Congress
- 'Moderates' and 'Extremists'
- Armed Revolutionaries in India
- Mahatma Gandhi: Non-violent Resistance Movement
- Azad Hind Sena
- 'Quit India' Movement of 1942
Decolonisation to Political Integration of India
World Wars and India
World : Decolonisation
India Transformed - Part 1
- India Transformed - Globalisation
- India Transformed - Rural Development Plans
- India Transformed - Urban Development Plans
- India Transformed - Means of Communication
- India Transformed - Economic Issues
- India Transformed - BRICS
- India Transformed - Science and Technology
- India Transformed - Defence Affairs
- India Transformed - Youth Related Policies
- India Transformed - Right to Information Act 2005
- India Transformed - Reorganisation of States
India Transformed - Part 2
Non-Alignment Policy of India and Non-Alignment Movement (NAM):
After the Second World War, without joining either Soviet Russia’s allied group Non-aligned movement, or America’s allied group, India adopted the policy of development by its own efforts and to shape its own strategies leading towards peace. This policy is known as ‘NAM – Non-Aligned Movement’. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Sukarno (Indonesia), Nkrumah (Ghana), Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt), and Marshal Tito (Yugoslavia) were the architects of the concept of NAM.
The nations, which adopt an independent foreign policy based on the concept of peaceful coexistence, support other nations in their independence struggle, and does not involve themselves in the military agreements or bilateral treaties with the superpowers is known as ‘Non- Aligned Nations’. Non-Alignment is a concept concerned more with progress and peace than war and poverty, so it is more positive.
In 1961, a conference of non-aligned nations was called at Belgrade. Belgrade Conference was the first summit of the Non-Aligned Movement. Representatives of 25 countries were present for this conference. It was concluded with a declaration containing 27 columns. It consisted of several demands such as: stop aggression in Asia, Africa, and South America, make Algeria and Angola free, Withdraw French army from Tunisia, Stop intervention in Congo, Policy of racism in South Africa stop, give natural rights to Arabs in Palestine.
The next conference of non-aligned countries was held in October 1964, at Cairo (Egypt). Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri attended this conference. The thrust of the conference was on preparing global awareness against forming groups of nations based on military concerns and the establishment of military bases in foreign countries. The third conference of the non-aligned nations was held in September 1970, at Lusaka (Zambia). In this conference, it was decided that non-alignment countries strengthen their unity; continue the policy of opposing military treaties, insist on equal status in international relations, and attempt to enhance disarmament. Besides, it was also resolved to end colonialism and racism; to put more emphasis on mutual co-operation, and to support the ‘United Nations’. The fourth Conference of the non-aligned nations was held in 1973, at Algiers (Algeria). This conference, put up some demands, such as, developing a new economic system and establishing a system of reporting international news. The fifth conference of the non-aligned nations was held in 1976, at Colombo (Sri Lanka). It was decided in this conference to try to create a new global economy by lessening the influence of the superpowers in the field. The next conferences were held in 1979, in Havana (Cuba), and in 1983, at New Delhi. The Palestinian cause and the support for the independence struggle of Southwestern Africa (now Namibia) were supported unanimously in the conference at New Delhi.
The conference of non-aligned nations held in New Delhi was the 7th one. India’s Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi in her speech in this conference emphasised ‘Freedom, Development, Disarmament, and Peace’. The main goal of the non-aligned movement progressed in the development of member nations. In the conference held in 1986, at Harare (Zimbabwe) a fund named ‘Africa Fund’ was raised for providing necessary aid to neighboring nations of South Africa. The issues of Namibia’s (Southwest Africa) freedom and the racialism of South Africa were discussed. In the conference held in 1992, at Jakarta (Indonesia), a demand for more facilities in the field of commerce and trade; as also a demand for the restructuring of the United Nations was put up.