Maharashtra State BoardHSC Science (General) 11th
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A. Root:

  • Typical Root Structure
  • Function of Root
  • Types of Root -  Tap root, Adventitious roots,
  • Modification of root - Modifications of tap root, For Respiration
  • Modifications of Adventitious Roots -
    a) Food storage
    b) For mechanical support
    1. Prop roots
    2. Stilt roots
    3. Climbing roots
    4. Clinging Roots
    5. Plank Roots/Buttresses
    6. Buoyont roots
    c) For special functions 
    1. Epiphytic roots
    2. Sucking roots or Haustoria

B. Stem:

  • Modifications of stem
    a. Underground stem
    1. Rhizome
    2. Stem Tuber
    3. Bulb
    4. Corm
    b. Subaerial stem
    1. Trailer
    2. Runner 
    3. Stolons
    4. Sucker
    5. Offset
    c. Aerial modification
    1. Thorn
    2. Phylloclade
    3. Cladodes
    4. Cladophylls
    5. Bulbils

C. Leaf

  1. Typical leaf structure
    Leaf base
    Petiole or mesopodium
    Lamina or epipodium
  2. Leaf venation
  3. Types of leaf
    a. Pinnately compound
    b. Palmately compound
  4. Modification of leaves
    a. Leaf spines
    b. Leaf tendril
    c. Leaf hooks
    d. Phyllode
  5. Phyllotaxy

D. Inflorescence

  • Types of inflorescence - Racemose, Cymose

E. Flower 

  1. Insertion of floral whorls - Hypogyny, Perigyny, Epigyny.
  2. Floral parts and their structure
    1. Calyx (K) 
    2. Corolla (C) - Perianth (P), Aestivation, Epicalyx
    3. Androecium (A)
    Typical stamen shows three different parts: Anther, Filament, Connective
    4. Gynoecium (G)
    - Placentation
    - Types of Placentation: Marginal, Axile, Parietal, Basal, Free central.

F. Fruit

G. Seed

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