Maharashtra State BoardHSC Arts 12th Board Exam
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Issues since 1991 - Technology

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notes

Issues since 1991 - Technology:

The nature of global communication changed rapidly in the 1990s. Satellite communication systems, mobile telephone, FAX, internet, etc brought in revolutionary changes in the social, political, and economic life of the people.

In 1990 CNN came into India. Until the coming in of a foreign channel, Doordarshan was the only TV broadcaster in India. In Maharashtra, for example we saw only two channels: Mumbai and Delhi Doordarshan. Within a span of a decade, the Indian TV network had several channels that were both private and governmental. Satellite communication system made it easy to have a dish antenna and watch programmes anywhere in India.

Doordarshan is an autonomous public service broadcaster founded by the Government of India, owned by the Broadcasting Ministry of India and one of Prasar Bharati’s two divisions. One of India's largest broadcasting organisations in studio and transmitter infrastructure, it was established on 15 September 1959. Doordarshan, which also broadcasts on digital terrestrial transmitters, provides television, radio, online and mobile service throughout metropolitan and regional India and overseas through the Indian Network and Radio India.

Changes also took place in other means of communication. Earlier, telephone connections were not available in all households. People would use the public telephones in the Post or the Telegraph office in case of emergencies. Long-distance calls were done through a system of Trunk Calls. Later on, the government introduced the Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD). Today we have mobile connectivity which is used by almost everybody. Both, private and government mobile phone systems are available today.

The internet revolution was perhaps the most important revolution in the field of technology. It became possible to connect to anyone in the world instantly. This global communication infrastructure has helped in the spread of ideas, cultures, and information. The Internet has provided ‘search engines’ to find information, it has also enabled ‘social networking’ activity like 'Twitter', 'Skype', 'Facebook', 'Instagram', 'What's App' etc.

The technologies of the information age are by their nature transnational. Mobile phones, satellite television, and the Internet operate regardless of borders. This has facilitated the growth of transborder groups, bodies, and institutions, ranging from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and transnational corporations (TNCs) to international criminal and terrorist organizations. The states have found it difficult to control and restrict the operations of transborder groups and organizations.

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