The World since 1991
Key Concepts and Issues since 1991: Globalisation
Key Concepts and Issues since 1991: Humanitarian Issues
Contemporary India: Challenges to Peace, Stability and National Integration
Contemporary India: Good Governance
India and the World
Issues since 1991 - Poverty and Women:
Gender refers to the socially constructed characteristics of women and men - such as behaviour, norms, roles, and relationships between women and men. Gender issues focus on women and on the relationship between men and women, their roles, access to and control over resources, division of labour, difficulties, and needs etc. In global politics, gender issues started gaining importance since the 1980s. This led to the development of a gender perspective to look at world politics. It includes gender analysis which means analysis of masculine and feminine identities is considered as important.
Gender approach is based on the assumption that men and women understand the world in a different manner. It believes that this understanding is a product of social or historical experiences. Gender approach recognises the contribution of women which was previously neglected. Invisible contributions of various sections of women such as domestic workers, migrant labourers, wives of diplomats etc. are taken into consideration. Along with this, it started paying attention to the problems faced by women across the world.
Gender inequality is pervasive, with women lacking access to decent employment and facing gender wage gaps. All around the world women and girls are routinely denied access to education and healthcare; they are under-represented in economic and political decision-making. They suffer from violence and discrimination.
The United Nations ‘Decade for Women’ began in the year 1976. The aim of this program was the promotion of equal rights and opportunities for women across the globe. The program also tried to link women’s issues with developmental issues. They focused on many inequalities that women face in education, health care, workplaces, landholding, and human rights.