#### Topics

##### Physical World and Measurement

##### Physical World

##### Units and Measurements

- International System of Units
- Measurement of Length
- Measurement of Mass
- Measurement of Time
- Accuracy Precision of Instruments and Errors in Measurement
- Significant Figures
- Dimensions of Physical Quantities
- Dimensional Formulae and Dimensional Equations
- Dimensional Analysis and Its Applications
- Need for Measurement
- Units of Measurement
- Fundamental and Derived Units
- Length, Mass and Time Measurements
- Introduction of Units and Measurements

##### Kinematics

##### Motion in a Plane

- Scalars and Vectors
- Multiplication of Vectors by a Real Number
- Addition and Subtraction of Vectors — Graphical Method
- Resolution of Vectors
- Vector Addition – Analytical Method
- Motion in a Plane
- Motion in a Plane with Constant Acceleration
- Projectile Motion
- Uniform Circular Motion
- General Vectors and Their Notations
- Motion in a Plane - Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity
- Rectangular Components
- Scalar and Vector Product of Vectors
- Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions
- Cases of Uniform Velocity
- Cases of Uniform Acceleration Projectile Motion
- Motion in a Plane - Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration
- Angular Velocity
- Introduction

##### Motion in a Straight Line

- Position, Path Length and Displacement
- Average Velocity and Average Speed
- Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
- Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion
- Acceleration
- Relative Velocity
- Elementary Concepts of Differentiation and Integration for Describing Motion
- Uniform and Non-Uniform Motion
- Uniformly Accelerated Motion
- Position-time, Velocity-time and Acceleration-time Graphs
- Motion in a Straight Line - Position-time Graph
- Relations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion (Graphical Treatment)
- Introduction

##### Laws of Motion

- Aristotle’s Fallacy
- The Law of Inertia
- Newton's First Law of Motion
- Newton’s Second Law of Motion
- Newton's Third Law of Motion
- Conservation of Momentum
- Equilibrium of a Particle
- Common Forces in Mechanics
- Circular Motion and Its Characteristics
- Solving Problems in Mechanics
- Static and Kinetic Friction
- Laws of Friction
- Inertia
- Intuitive Concept of Force
- Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion - Centripetal Force
- Examples of Circular Motion (Vehicle on a Level Circular Road, Vehicle on a Banked Road)
- Lubrication - (Laws of Motion)
- Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum and Its Applications
- Rolling Friction
- Introduction

##### Work, Energy and Power

- Introduction of Work, Energy and Power
- Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy: the Work-Energy Theorem
- Kinetic Energy
- Work Done by a Constant Force and a Variable Force
- Concept of Work
- The Concept of Potential Energy
- The Conservation of Mechanical Energy
- Potential Energy of a Spring
- Various Forms of Energy : the Law of Conservation of Energy
- Power
- Collisions
- Non - Conservative Forces - Motion in a Vertical Circle

##### Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

##### System of Particles and Rotational Motion

- Motion - Rigid Body
- Centre of Mass
- Motion of Centre of Mass
- Linear Momentum of a System of Particles
- Vector Product of Two Vectors
- Angular Velocity and Its Relation with Linear Velocity
- Torque and Angular Momentum
- Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies
- Moment of Inertia
- Theorems of Perpendicular and Parallel Axes
- Kinematics of Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis
- Dynamics of Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis
- Angular Momentum in Case of Rotation About a Fixed Axis
- Rolling Motion
- Momentum Conservation and Centre of Mass Motion
- Centre of Mass of a Rigid Body
- Centre of Mass of a Uniform Rod
- Rigid Body Rotation
- Equations of Rotational Motion
- Comparison of Linear and Rotational Motions
- Values of Moments of Inertia for Simple Geometrical Objects (No Derivation)

##### Gravitation

- Kepler’s Laws
- Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
- The Gravitational Constant
- Acceleration Due to Gravity of the Earth
- Acceleration Due to Gravity Below and Above the Surface of Earth
- Acceleration Due to Gravity and Its Variation with Altitude and Depth
- Gravitational Potential Energy
- Escape Speed
- Earth Satellites
- Energy of an Orbiting Satellite
- Geostationary and Polar Satellites
- Weightlessness
- Escape Velocity
- Orbital Velocity of a Satellite

##### Properties of Bulk Matter

##### Mechanical Properties of Fluids

- Thrust and Pressure
- Transmission of Pressure in Liquids: Pascal’s Law
- Variation of Pressure with Depth
- Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
- Hydraulic Machines
- STREAMLINE FLOW
- Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
- Viscous Force Or Viscosity
- Reynolds Number
- Surface Tension
- Effect of Gravity on Fluid Pressure
- Terminal Velocity
- Critical Velocity
- Excess of Pressure Across a Curved Surface
- Introduction to Fluid Machanics
- Archimedes' Principle
- Stokes' Law
- Equation of Continuity
- Torricelli'S Law

##### Thermal Properties of Matter

- Heat and Temperature
- Measurement of Temperature
- Ideal-gas Equation and Absolute Temperature
- Thermal Expansion
- Specific Heat Capacity
- Calorimetry
- Change of State - Latent Heat Capacity
- Conduction
- Convection
- Radiation
- Newton’s Law of Cooling
- Qualitative Ideas of Blackbody Radiation
- Wein'S Displacement Law
- Stefan's Law
- Anomalous Expansion of Water
- Liquids and Gases
- Thermal Expansion of Solids
- Green House Effect

##### Mechanical Properties of Solids

##### Thermodynamics

- Thermal Equilibrium
- Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
- Heat, Internal Energy and Work
- First Law of Thermodynamics
- Specific Heat Capacity
- Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State
- Thermodynamic Process
- Heat Engines
- Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
- Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Reversible and Irreversible Processes
- Carnot Engine
- Isothermal Processes
- Adiabatic Processes

##### Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases

##### Kinetic Theory

- Molecular Nature of Matter
- Gases and Its Characteristics
- Equation of State of a Perfect Gas
- Work Done in Compressing a Gas
- Introduction of Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas
- Interpretation of Temperature in Kinetic Theory
- Law of Equipartition of Energy
- Specific Heat Capacities - Gases
- Mean Free Path
- Kinetic Theory of Gases - Concept of Pressure
- Kinetic Theory of Gases- Assumptions
- rms Speed of Gas Molecules
- Degrees of Freedom
- Avogadro's Number

##### Oscillations and Waves

##### Oscillations

- Periodic and Oscillatory Motions
- Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
- Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion
- Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion
- Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Some Systems Executing Simple Harmonic Motion
- Damped Simple Harmonic Motion
- Forced Oscillations and Resonance
- Displacement as a Function of Time
- Periodic Functions
- Oscillations - Frequency

##### Waves

#### notes

## Introduction

Motion draws our attention. Motion itself can be beautiful, causing us to marvel at the forces needed to achieve spectacular motion, such as that of a dolphin jumping out of the water, or a pole vaulter, or the flight of a bird, or the orbit of a satellite. The study of motion is kinematics, but kinematics only describes the way objects move—their velocity and their acceleration.**Dynamics considers the forces that affect the motion of moving objects and systems. Newton’s laws of motion are the foundation of dynamics. These laws provide an example of the breadth and simplicity of principles under which nature functions. They are also universal laws in that they apply to similar situations on Earth as well as in space. **

#### notes

## Introduction

Motion is one of the significant topics in physics. Everything in the universe moves. It might only be a small amount of moment and very-very slow, but movement does happen. Even if you appear to be standing still, the earth is moving around the sun, and the sun is moving around our galaxy.

”** An object is said to be in motion if its position changes with time**.”

The concept of motion is a relive one and a body that may be at in motion relative to one reference system, may be at rest relative to another.

There are two branches in physics that examine the motion of the object.**1. Kinematics**: It describes the motion of objects, without looking at the cause of the motion.**2. Dynamics**: It relates the motion of objects to the forces which cause them.

**Point object**If the length covered by the objects are very large in comparison to the size of the objects, the objects are considered point objects.

**Reference Systems**The motion of a particle is always described with respect to a reference system. A reference system is made by taking an arbitrary point as origin and imaging a co-ordinate system to be attached to it. This co-ordinate system chosen for a given problem constitutes the reference system for it. We generally choose a co-ordinate system attached to the earth as the reference system for most of the problems.

**Types of Motion**

**1. One Dimensional Motion**

If only one out of three coordinates specifying the position of the object changes with respect to time, then the motion is called one dimensional motion.

For instance, motion of a block in a straight line motion of a train along a straight track a man walking on a level and narrow road and object falling under gravity etc.

**2. Two Dimensional Motion**If only two out of three coordinates specifying the position of the object changes with respect to time, then the motion is called two dimensional motion.

A circular motion is an instance of two dimensional motion.

**3. Three Dimensional Motion**If all the three coordinates specifying the position of the object changes with respect to time, then the motion is called three dimensional motion.

A few instances of three dimension are flying bird, a flying kite, a flying aeroplane, the random motion of gas molecule etc.

#### notes

## Introduction

The physical quantities like work, temperature and distance can be represented in day to day life wholly by their magnitude alone. However, the relation of these physical quantities can be explained by the laws of arithmetic. In order to represent physical quantities like acceleration, displacement, and force, the direction is equally essential along with the magnitude.

Motion in a plane includes linear motion, rotational motion, and projectile motion. This lesson will focus on two-dimensional, linear motion of a single object, and linear motion of two objects moving relative to each other. In both scenarios unit-vectors will be utilized to organize the displacements, velocities, and accelerations of the object(s); and techniques will be taught that help to solve these types of kinematics problems.