Indian Traditions of Visual Arts (Drik Kala): Architecture and Sculpture - Indo-Islamic Architecture

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Notes

Indo-Islamic architecture:

  • The Islamic architecture of India was created throughout the medieval period when a variety of architectural styles, including Persian, Central Asian, Arabic, and pre-Islamic native Indian traditions, were combined under the patronage of Muslim sultanates. There have been many stunning structures built.
  • The Taj Mahal in Agra, the Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur in Karnataka, and the Qutub Minar in Mehrauli near Delhi are three of India's most well-known examples of Islamic architecture. 

Features of Indo-Islamic Architecture:  

  • In Islamic countries, buildings were made of brick, lime, and mortar. Their architectural styles were arcuate, which means they used arches, domes, and vaults. 
  • Muslims avoided using human figurines due to religious injunctions, instead opting for geometrical patterns (arabesque), floral patterns, inscriptions in various styles, and inlay on marble (Pietra dura). 
  • Perforated lattice screens with arabesques, star motifs, and other geometric shapes like pentagons, hexagons, octagons, and circles. 
  • Gardens were an essential part of Islamic architecture.

Few Examples of Indo-Islamic Architecture: 

Qutub Minar

1. Qutub Minar:

  • Qutub Minar was built when Qutubuddin Aibak (12th century C.E.) was in power, and four storeys were finished during Altmash's rule (13th century).
  • Phiroz Tughluq oversaw the completion of the Qutub Minar's construction.
  • It is the tallest minaret in the world.
  • Its height is 73 metres (240 feet).
  • The Qutub Minar building complex has been designated as a World Heritage Site. 

Chand Minar 

2. Chand Minar:

  • It was erected in 1445 C.E by King Ala-ud-din Bahmani to commemorate his capture of the fort.
  • It is a 210- feet-high tapering tower divided into
    four storeys.

    Taj Mahal

3.  Taj Mahal:

  • The Taj Mahal was constructed by the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan in honour of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.
  • The Taj Mahal is regarded as the finest illustration of Islamic architecture's aesthetic beauty in India.
  • UNESCO has recognised this internationally renowned structure as a World Heritage Site. 

Gol Gumbaz

4. Gol Gumbaz:

  • In the 17th century C.E., the Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur, Karnataka, was constructed.
  • Mohammed Adil Shah of Bijapur's grave is located in this magnificent structure.
  • There is a circular gallery inside the dome, after which the structure is named.
  • Anyone standing in this gallery can hear even the slightest whisper, and if someone claps from here, it echoes many times. 
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