Indian Traditions of Visual Arts (Drik Kala): Architecture and Sculpture - Indo-Gothic architecture

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Notes

Indo-Gothic architecture:

  • In India, a new architectural style emerged during the British era. First, with Mughal influence, the Gothic revival was introduced to colonial constructions, giving birth to the Indo-British style. The architectural style is referred to as Indo-Gothic.
  • The buildings and monuments saw a mix of Indian (Mughal) styles, Victorian, Gothic, Palladian, Victorian Gothic, Baroque, and other styles.
  • The Victorian Gothic architecture thus was basically a hotch-potch of early European styles mixed with the introduction of Middle East and Asian influences. This monument represents the themes deriving from Indian traditional architecture. This was the beginning of the Indo-gothic or Indo-Saracenic revival.
  • During the British era, structures like churches, government buildings, executive mansions, and railroad stations were constructed in this style.

Three remarkable styles adopted in the British era were: 

  • Gothic 
  • Palladian 
  • Victorian Gothic 

Prominent Features:  

  • The Indo-Saracenic features stand apart; they are: Minarets, Harem Windows, Open Pavilions, Pierced Open Arcading, Domed Kiosks, Many Miniature Domes, or Domed Chhatris, Towers impressive Onion (Bulbous) Domes Overhanging Eaves, Pointed Arches, Cusped Arches, or Scalloped Arches Vaulted Roofs. colonnaded balcony, Chattris & Chajjas in red sandstone.  

Examples of Indo-Gothic Architecture: 

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) 

1. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST):

  • Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) formerly known as Victoria Terminus (VT) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a historic railway station in Mumbai, India which serves as the headquarters of central railways.
  • The Victoria terminus station in Mumbai is an example of Victorian Gothic revival architecture in India, deriving themes from Indian traditional architecture. It was designed by Frederick William Stevens 
  • The station was built in 1887 in Bunder area of Bombay to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. 

Gateway of India

2. Gateway of India  

  • The gateway of India is a monument built during the British raj in Mumbai. 
  • It is located on the waterfront in the Apollo Bander area in south Mumbai and overlooks the Arabian sea. 
  • The structure is a basalt arch, 26 meters (85 feet) high. 
  • G Wittet designed the Gateway of India in Mumbai, borrowing several elements of the Mughal style.

Taj Mahal Palace Hotel

 

3. Taj Mahal Palace Hotel:

  • The Taj Mahal palace hotel is a five-star hotel located in the Colaba region of Mumbai Maharashtra India next to the gateway of India.
  • The Taj Mahal Hotel was commissioned by Jamshedji Tata and opened its doors to guests on 16 December 1903.
  • The original Indian architects were Sitaram Khanderao Vaidya and DN Mirza. It was completed by an English engineer W.A. Chamber. The builder was Khan Saheb Sorabji Rutton Ji.  
  • Part of the Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces, the hotel has 560 rooms and 44 suites and is considered the flagship property of the group.
  • The hotel is made up of two different structures: the Taj Mahal Palace and the Tower, which are historically and architecturally distinct from each other (the Taj Mahal Palace was built in 1903; the Tower was opened in 1972).

Municipal Corporation Building

4. Municipal Corporation Building:

  • The Municipal corporation Building was located in south Mumbai in Maharashtra, is a grade a heritage building opposite the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus at the junction of Dadabhai Naoroji Road and Mahapalika Marg.
  • It is also known as the Bombay Municipal Corporation building or BMC.
  • Mumbai corporation of greater Mumbai has its own motto- Yato Dharmastato Jaya. It is said to be the largest civic organization.
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