Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants
- Reproduction in Plant
- Mode of Reproduction in Plant
- Asexual Reproduction in Plant
- Vegetative Reproduction
- Natural Vegetative Reproduction
- Artificial Vegetative Reproduction - Conventional Method
- Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Structure and Events
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Stamen (Male Reproductive Unit)
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Microsporangium
- Structure of Microspore Or Pollen Grain
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Pistil (Female Reproductive Unit)
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Megasporangium
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Formation of Embryo Sac
- Self Pollination (Autogamy)
- Cross Pollination
- Cross Pollination
- Agents of Pollination
- Outbreeding Devices
- Pollen Pistil Interaction
- Double Fertilization and Triple Fusion in Plant
- Post Fertilisation in Plant: Structures and Events
- Development of Endosperm
- Post Fertilization in Plant: Development of Embryo (Embryogeny)
- Formation of Seed and Fruit
Reproduction in Lower and Higher Animals
- Reproduction in Animal and Human
- Mode of Reproduction in Animal
- Asexual Reproduction in Animal
- Sexual Reproduction in Animals
- Human Reproductive System
- The Male Reproductive System
- The Female Reproductive System
- Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)
- Fertilization in Human
- Embryonic Development in Human
- Implantation in Human
- Pregnancy in Humans
- Placenta (Growth) in Human
- Parturition (Birth) in Human
- Lactation in Human
- Reproductive Health
- Population Stabilisation and Birth Control
- Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP)
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
Inheritance and Variation
- Gregor Johann Mendel – Father of Genetics
- Genes and Genetic
- Mendelian Inheritance - Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
- Back Cross and Test Cross
- Deviations from Mendel’s Findings
- Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
- Chromosomes - The Carriers of Heredity
- Linkage and Crossing Over
- Autosomal Inheritance
- Sex Linked Inheritance
- Sex Determination
- Genetic Disorders
Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Origin and Evolution of Life
- Origin and Evolution of Universe and Earth
- Theories of Origin of Life
- Chemical Evolution of Life (Self-assembly Theory of the Origin of Life)
- Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
- Mutation Theory
- Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution
- Mechanism of Organic Evolution
- Hardy Weinberg’s Principle
- Adaptive Radiation
- Evidences for Biological Evolution
- Geological Time Scale
- Origin and Evolution of Man
Plant Water Relation
- Plant Water Relation
- Properties of Water
- Water and Mineral Absorption by Root
- Characteristics of Roots for Absorbing Water
- Water Available to Roots for Absorption
- Means of Transport in Plants
- Concept of Imbibition
- Simple Diffusion
- Concept of Osmosis
- Osmotic Pressure
- Facilitated Diffusion
- Turgidity and Flaccidity (Plasmolysis)
- Active Transport
- Passive Transport
- Water Potential (ψ)
- Path of Water Across the Root
- Translocation of Water (Ascent of Sap)
- Translocation of Mineral Ions
- Transport of Food
- Kinds of Transpiration
- Structure of Stomatal Apparatus
- Significance of Transpiration
Plant Growth and Mineral Nutrition
- Plant Growth
- Phases of Plant Growth
- Conditions Necessary for Plant Growth
- Plant Growth Rate
- Types of Plant Growth
- Plant Growth Curve
- Differentiation, De-differentiation, Re- Differentiation
- Plant Development
- Plant Plasticity
- Plant Hormones
- Types of Plant Hormones: Auxins
- Types of Plant Hormones: Gibberellins
- Types of Plant Hormones: Cytokinins
- Types of Plant Hormones: Ethylene
- Types of Plant Hormones: Abscisic Acid (ABA)
- Vernalization (Yarovization)
- Plant Mineral Nutrition
- Nitrogen Cycle
Respiration and Circulation
- Organs of Respiratory Exchange
- Human Respiratory System
- Breathing – Respiratory Cycle
- Regulation of Respiration
- Modified Respiratory Movements
- Disorders of Respiratory System
- Transportation in Living Organisms
- Types of Blood Circulation
- Types of Blood Circulation
- Blood Circulatory System in Human
- Composition of Blood: Plasma (The Liquid Portion of Blood)
- Composition of Blood: Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
- Composition of Blood: White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
- Composition of Blood: Blood Platelets (Thrombocytes)
- Function of Platelets - Clotting of Blood (Coagulation)
- Human Heart
- Circulation of Blood in the Heart: Cardiac Cycle
- Blood Vessels – Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries
- Blood Pressure (B.P.)
- Electrocardiogram (ECG)
- Lymph and Lymphatic System
Control and Co-ordination
- Control and Co-ordination
- Nervous System in Hydra
- Nervous System in Planaria (Flatworm)
- Neural Tissue
- Neuron (Or Nerve Cell) and Its Types
- Neuroglial Cells (Or Glial Cells)
- Neuron as Structural and Functional Unit of Neural System
- Nerve Fibres
- Transmission of Nerve Impulse
- Human Nervous System
- Central Nervous System (CNS)
- The Human Brain
- Central Nervous System (CNS): Structure of Human Brain
- The Spinal Cord
- Reflex and Reflex Action
- Reflex Arc
- Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
- Sensory Receptors
- Human Eye: Structure of the Eye
- Working of the Human Eye
- Human Ear
- Disorders of Nervous System
- Human Endocrine System
- The Hypothalamus
- Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis Gland
- The Pineal Gland
- Thyroid Gland
- Parathyroid Gland
- Thymus Gland
- Adrenal Gland (Suprarenal Gland)
- Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans)
- Reproductive Glands (Gonads)
Human Health and Diseases
- Defence System in Our Body: Immune System
- Types of Immunity
- Vaccination and Immunization
- Structure of Antibody
- Categories of Disease
- Protozoan Diseases
- Helminthic Diseases
- Bacterial Diseases
- Viral Diseases
- Fungal Diseases
- Vector Borne Diseases
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
- Drug Abuse
Enhancement of Food Production
- Improvement in Food Production
- Plant Breeding
- Tissue Culture
- Single Cell Protein (SCP)
- Animal Husbandry (Livestock)
- Animal Breeding
- Dairy Farming
- Poultry Farming
- Apiculture (Bee Farming)
- Pisciculture (Fish Farming)
- Lac Culture
- Microbes in Human Welfare
- Microbes in Industrial Production
- Microbes in Sewage Treatment
- Microbes in Energy Generation
- Microbes as Biocontrol Agents
- Microbes as Biofertilizers
Organisms and Populations
Ecosystems and Energy Flow
Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues
- Levels of Biodiversity
- Patterns of Biodiversity
- Biodiversity Current Scenario
- Loss of Biodiversity
- Conservation of Wildlife
- Biological Diversity Act, 2002
- Environmental Issues
- Air Pollution and Its Causes
- Effects of Air Pollution
- Prevention of Air Pollution
- Noise Pollution
- Measures to Limit Noise Pollution
- Water Pollution and Its Causes
- Effects of Water Pollution
- Prevention of Water Pollution
- Green House Effect
- Preventive Measures of Green House Effect
- Global Warming
- Preventive Measures of Global Warming
- Ozone Layer Depletion
- Deforestation and Its Causes
- Mission Harit Maharashtra
Excretion and Osmoregulation
REPRODUCTION IN HUMAN BEINGS:-
-Humans use sexual mode of reproduction.
-Sexual maturation: The period of life when production of germ cells i.e. Ova (female) and sperm (male) start in the body. This period of sexual maturation is called puberty.
Changes at puberty:-
Male and females:-
-Thick hair growth in armpits and genital areas.
-Skin becomes oily, may result in pimples.
-Breast size increases
-Girls begin to menstruate.
-Thick hair growth on face
-voice begins to crack
These changes signal that sexual maturity is taking place
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:-
-A pair of testes are located inside the scrotum which is present outside the abdominal cavity.
-scrotum has a relatively lower temperature needed for the production of sperms.
-male germ cell i.e. sperms are formed here.
-testes release male sex hormone (testosterone)
-regulate production of sperms.
-bring changes at puberty.
(ii) Vas deferns:
- It passes the sperm from the testes to the urethera.
- it is a common passage for both sperm and urine.
(iv) Associated gland:-
- Seminal vesicles and prostate gland add their secretion to the sperms. This fluid provides nourishment to sperms and make their transport easy.
- sperm along with secretion of glands form semen.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:
- A pair of ovary is located at both sides of the abdomen.
- Female germ cell i.e. eggs are produced here.
- At the time of birth of a girl, thousand of immature eggs are present in the ovary
- At the onset of puberty, some of these eggs start maturing.
- One egg is produced every month by one of the ovaries.
(ii) Oviduct or Fallopian tube:-
- Receives the egg produced by the ovary and transfer it to the uterus.
- Fertilization i.e. fusion of gametes takes place here.
- It is a bag like structure where development of the baby takes place
- uterus opens into vagina through cervix.
FERTILISATION OF EGG:-
- The fertilized egg called zygote is planted in uterus and develops into an embryo.
- The embryo gets nutrition from the mothers blood with the help of special tissue called placenta. It provides a large surface area for the exchange of glucose, oxygen and waste material.
- The time period from fertilization upto the birth of the baby is called gestation period.
WHEN EGG IS NOT FERTILISED:-
- The uterus prepares itself every month to receive fertilized egg
-The lining of the uterus becomes thick and spongy, required to support the embryo.
-When fertilisation had not taken place this lining is not needed any longer.
-This lining breaks and comes out through the vagina as blood and mucus.
-this cycle takes around 28 days every month and is called menstruation.
IMPLANTATION: In humans, implantation is the stage of pregnancy at which the embryo adheres to the wall of the uterus. At this stage of parental development, the conceptus is called a blastocyst. It is by this adhesion that the embryo receives oxygen and nutrients from the mother to be able to grow.
PLACENTA: The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy. This structure provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby and removes waste products from the baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the baby's umbilical cord arises from it. The organ is usually attached to the top, side, front or back of the uterus. In rare cases, the placenta might attach in the lower uterine region (placenta previa).
GESTATION: Gestation, in mammals, the time between conception and birth, during which the embryo or fetus is developing in the uterus.
PARTURTION: The act or process of giving birth is known as parturtion.
Shaalaa.com | Reproduction part 16 (Sexual reproduction in humans: Puberty)
Series: series 1
Rewrite the terms in the correct order so as to be in a logical sequence:
Implantation → Ovulation → child birth → gestation →fertilization.
Give scientific reasons: When an ovum gets fertilized, menstrual cycle stops temporarily in a woman.