Topics
Physical World and Measurement
Physical World
Units and Measurements
 International System of Units
 Measurement of Length
 Measurement of Mass
 Measurement of Time
 Accuracy, Precision and Least Count of Measuring Instruments
 Errors in Measurements
 Significant Figures
 Dimensions of Physical Quantities
 Dimensional Formulae and Dimensional Equations
 Dimensional Analysis and Its Applications
 Need for Measurement
 Units of Measurement
 Fundamental and Derived Units
 Length, Mass and Time Measurements
 Introduction of Units and Measurements
Kinematics
Laws of Motion
 Aristotle’s Fallacy
 The Law of Inertia
 Newton's First Law of Motion
 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
 Newton's Third Law of Motion
 Conservation of Momentum
 Equilibrium of a Particle
 Common Forces in Mechanics
 Circular Motion and Its Characteristics
 Solving Problems in Mechanics
 Static and Kinetic Friction
 Laws of Friction
 Inertia
 Intuitive Concept of Force
 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion  Centripetal Force
 Examples of Circular Motion (Vehicle on a Level Circular Road, Vehicle on a Banked Road)
 Lubrication  (Laws of Motion)
 Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum and Its Applications
 Rolling Friction
 Introduction of Motion in One Dimension
Motion in a Straight Line
 Position, Path Length and Displacement
 Average Velocity and Average Speed
 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
 Kinematic Equations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion
 Acceleration (Average and Instantaneous)
 Relative Velocity
 Elementary Concept of Differentiation and Integration for Describing Motion
 Uniform and Nonuniform Motion
 Uniformly Accelerated Motion
 Positiontime, Velocitytime and Accelerationtime Graphs
 Position  Time Graph
 Relations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion (Graphical Treatment)
 Introduction of Motion in One Dimension
Motion in a Plane
 Scalars and Vectors
 Multiplication of Vectors by a Real Number or Scalar
 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors  Graphical Method
 Resolution of Vectors
 Vector Addition – Analytical Method
 Motion in a Plane
 Motion in a Plane with Constant Acceleration
 Projectile Motion
 Uniform Circular Motion (UCM)
 General Vectors and Their Notations
 Motion in a Plane  Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity
 Rectangular Components
 Scalar (Dot) and Vector (Cross) Product of Vectors
 Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions
 Cases of Uniform Velocity
 Cases of Uniform Acceleration Projectile Motion
 Motion in a Plane  Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration
 Angular Velocity
 Introduction of Motion in One Dimension
Work, Energy and Power
 Introduction of Work, Energy and Power
 Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy: the Workenergy Theorem
 Kinetic Energy
 Work Done by a Constant Force and a Variable Force
 Concept of Work
 The Concept of Potential Energy
 Conservation of Mechanical Energy
 Potential Energy of a Spring
 Various Forms of Energy : the Law of Conservation of Energy
 Power
 Collisions
 Non  Conservative Forces  Motion in a Vertical Circle
Laws of Motion
Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
Gravitation
 Kepler’s Laws
 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
 The Gravitational Constant
 Acceleration Due to Gravity of the Earth
 Acceleration Due to Gravity Below and Above the Earth's Surface
 Acceleration Due to Gravity and Its Variation with Altitude and Depth
 Gravitational Potential Energy
 Escape Speed
 Earth Satellites
 Energy of an Orbiting Satellite
 Geostationary and Polar Satellites
 Weightlessness
 Escape Velocity
 Orbital Velocity of a Satellite
Work, Energy and Power
Properties of Bulk Matter
System of Particles and Rotational Motion
 Motion  Rigid Body
 Centre of Mass
 Motion of Centre of Mass
 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles
 Vector Product of Two Vectors
 Angular Velocity and Its Relation with Linear Velocity
 Torque and Angular Momentum
 Equilibrium of Rigid Body
 Moment of Inertia
 Theorems of Perpendicular and Parallel Axes
 Kinematics of Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis
 Dynamics of Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis
 Angular Momentum in Case of Rotation About a Fixed Axis
 Rolling Motion
 Momentum Conservation and Centre of Mass Motion
 Centre of Mass of a Rigid Body
 Centre of Mass of a Uniform Rod
 Rigid Body Rotation
 Equations of Rotational Motion
 Comparison of Linear and Rotational Motions
 Values of Moments of Inertia for Simple Geometrical Objects (No Derivation)
Gravitation
Thermodynamics
 Thermal Equilibrium
 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
 Heat, Internal Energy and Work
 First Law of Thermodynamics
 Specific Heat Capacity
 Thermodynamic State Variables and Equation of State
 Thermodynamic Process
 Heat Engine
 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
 Carnot Engine
 Isothermal Processes
 Adiabatic Processes
Mechanical Properties of Solids
Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases
Mechanical Properties of Fluids
 Thrust and Pressure
 Pascal’s Law
 Variation of Pressure with Depth
 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
 Hydraulic Machines
 Streamline and Turbulent Flow
 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
 Viscous Force or Viscosity
 Reynold's Number
 Surface Tension
 Effect of Gravity on Fluid Pressure
 Terminal Velocity
 Critical Velocity
 Excess of Pressure Across a Curved Surface
 Introduction of Mechanical Properties of Fluids
 Archimedes' Principle
 Stoke's Law
 Equation of Continuity
 Torricelli's Law
Oscillations and Waves
Thermal Properties of Matter
 Heat and Temperature
 Measurement of Temperature
 Idealgas Equation and Absolute Temperature
 Thermal Expansion
 Specific Heat Capacity
 Calorimetry
 Change of State  Latent Heat Capacity
 Conduction
 Convection
 Radiation
 Newton’s Law of Cooling
 Qualitative Ideas of Black Body Radiation
 Wien's Displacement Law
 Stefan's Law
 Anomalous Expansion of Water
 Liquids and Gases
 Thermal Expansion of Solids
 Green House Effect
Thermodynamics
Kinetic Theory
 Molecular Nature of Matter
 Gases and Its Characteristics
 Equation of State of a Perfect Gas
 Work Done in Compressing a Gas
 Introduction of Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas
 Interpretation of Temperature in Kinetic Theory
 Law of Equipartition of Energy
 Specific Heat Capacities  Gases
 Mean Free Path
 Kinetic Theory of Gases  Concept of Pressure
 Assumptions of Kinetic Theory of Gases
 RMS Speed of Gas Molecules
 Degrees of Freedom
 Avogadro's Number
Oscillations
 Periodic and Oscillatory Motion
 Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M.)
 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion
 Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion
 Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion
 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
 Some Systems Executing Simple Harmonic Motion
 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion
 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
 Displacement as a Function of Time
 Periodic Functions
 Oscillations  Frequency
Waves
description
 Gravitational Force
 Electromagnetic Force
 Strong Nuclear Force
 Weak Nuclear Force
 Towards Unification of Forces
notes
Fundamental forces in nature
The Four Fundamental Forces and their strengths
1. Gravitational Force – Weakest force; but infinite range.
2. Weak Nuclear Force – Next weakest; but short range.
3. Electromagnetic Force – Stronger, with infinite range.
4. Strong Nuclear Force – Strongest; but short range.
Name 
Relative Strength 
Range 
Operates among 
Gravitational force 
10–39 
Infinite 
All objects in the universe 
Weak nuclear force 
10–13 
Very short, Subnuclear size (1016m) 
Some elementary particles, particularly electron and neutrino 
Electromagnetic force 
10–2 
Infinite 
Charged particles 
Strong nuclear force 
1 
Short, nuclear size (1015m) 
Nucleons, heavier elementary particles 
Gravitational Force:
It is the force of mutual attraction between any two objects by virtue of their masses. It is a universal force as every object experiences this force due to every other object in the universe.
The gravitational force is weak, but very long ranged. Furthermore, it is always attractive. It acts between any two pieces of matter in the Universe since mass is its source.
Gravity is a force in which it pulls anything down to the centre of the Earth. There are unlimited examples of gravitational forces.

Your weight If there was no gravity, you would weigh nothing

Apples falling from a tree The reason how gravity was discovered (by Issac Newton)

Kicking a football up in the air; it obviously comes back down

Jumping up and down

Rain falling from the sky

All planets forming the solar system The reason why planets are orbiting the Sun is because of its huge gravitational pull

The moon orbiting the Earth

Waves in the sea are formed mostly due to the gravity of the moon

The Milky Way galaxy is spinning due to the enormous gravitational pull of the supermassive black hole in the very centre which is 4 million times the mass of our Sun
Weak Nuclear Force:
The weak force is responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino interactions. The weak force causes Beta decay. In β decay, the nucleus emits an electron and an uncharged particle called neutrino. It has a very short range. As its name indicates, it is very weak.
Electromagnetic Force:It is the force between charged particles. Charges at rest have electric attraction (between unlike charges) and repulsion (between like charges). Charges in motion produce magnetic force. Together they are called Electromagnetic Force.
The electromagnetic force causes electric and magnetic effects such as the repulsion between like electrical charges or the interaction of bar magnets. It is longranged, but much weaker than the strong force. It can be attractive or repulsive, and acts only between pieces of matter carrying electrical charge. Electricity, magnetism, and light are all produced by this force.
Strong Nuclear Force:
It is the attractive force between protons and neutrons in a nucleus. It is chargeindependent and acts equally between a proton and a proton, a neutron and a neutron, and a proton and a neutron. Recent discoveries show that protons and neutrons are built of elementary particles, quarks.
The strong interaction is very strong, but very shortranged. It is responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms together. It is basically attractive, but can be effectively repulsive in some circumstances. The strong force is carried by particles called gluons; that is, when two particles interact through the strong force, they do so by exchanging gluons. Thus, the quarks inside of the protons and neutrons are bound together by the exchange of the strong nuclear force.
Unification of Forces:
There have been physicists who have tried to combine a few of the above fundamental forces. These are listed in table below.
Name of Physicist
Year
Achievement in Unification
Isaac Newton
1687
Unified celestial and terrestrial mechanics.
Hans Christian Oersted and Michael Faraday
1820 and 1830 respectively
Unified electric and magnetic phenomena to give rise to
electromagnetism.
James Clerk Maxwell
1873
Unified electricity, magnetism and optics to show that light is an electromagnetic wave.
Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, Steven Weinberg
Carlo Rubia, Simon Vander Meer
1979
1984
Gave the idea of electroweak force which is a combination of electromagnetic and weak nuclear force.
Verified the theory of electroweak force.