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Electric Generator - Ac

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-In an electric generator, mechanical energy is used to rotate a conductor in a magnetic field to produce electricity.

-consists of a rotating rectangular coil ABCD placed between the two poles of a permanent magnet. The two ends of this coil are connected to the two rings R1 and R2. The inner side of these rings are made insulated.

-The two conducting stationary brushes B1 and B2 are kept pressed separately on the rings R1 and R2, respectively. The two rings R1 and R2 are internally attached to an axle. The axle may be mechanically rotated from outside to rotate the coil inside the magnetic field.

-Outer ends of the two brushes are connected to the galvanometer to show the flow of current in the given external circuit. When the axle attached to the two rings is rotated such that the arm AB moves up (and the arm CD moves down) in the magnetic field produced by the permanent magnet. Let us say the coil ABCD is rotated clockwise in the arrangement.

-By applying Fleming’s right-hand rule, the induced currents are set up in these arms along the directions AB and CD. Thus an induced current flows in the direction ABCD. If there are larger numbers of turns in the coil, the current generated in each turn adds up to give a large current through the coil.

-This means that the current in the external circuit flows from B2 to B1. After half a rotation, arm CD starts moving up and AB moving down. As a result, the directions of the induced currents in both the arms change, giving rise to the net induced current in the direction DCBA

-The current in the external circuit now flows from B1 to B2. Thus after every half rotation the polarity of the current in the respective arms changes. Such a current, which changes direction after equal intervals of time, is called an alternating current. This device is called an AC generator.

-To get a direct current (DC, which does not change its direction with time), a split-ring type commutator must be used. With this arrangement, one brush is at all times in contact with the arm moving up in the field, while the other is in contact with the arm moving down. We have seen the working of a split ring commutator in the case of an electric motor. . Thus a unidirectional current is produced. The generator is thus called a DC generator.


If you would like to contribute notes or other learning material, please submit them using the button below. | Magnetic Effects of Current part 12 (Electric Generator)

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