Economies of Indian Tribes

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  • Food gathering
  • agriculture: shifting axe cultivation ( jhum, Dahi, Koman, penda, podu and bewar),
  • criticism of this type of cultivation, examples of tribes having this
  • handicraft making
  • pastoralism
  • industrial labour - migration of large numbers of Santhal, Kond and Gond to tea gardens in the north-east; large resources of coal, iron and steel in Bengal, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh; examples of Santhal, Ho in pick-ining, coal-cutting, the mica and the iron & steel industry
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