Drugs and Alcohol Abuse - Addiction and Dependence

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Notes

Addiction and Dependence: 

  • Addiction is a psychological attachment to certain effects like euphoria and a temporary feeling of well-being associated with alcohol and drugs. 
  • People use them repeatedly even when they are not needed or even when their use becomes self-destructive. The repeated use of drugs increases the tolerance level of receptors present in our body.
  • Consequently, these receptors respond only to higher doses of drugs/alcohol, thereby leading to a greater intake and addiction.
  • Dependence is the tendency of the body to manifest certain characteristics and unpleasant withdrawal syndrome if the regular dose of alcohol/drugs is suddenly stopped. In some cases, withdrawal symptoms are severe, life-threatening, and may need medical supervision.  
  • Some of the withdrawal symptoms are anxiety, shakiness, nausea, and sweating.
  • Sportspersons do to enhance their performance by (mis)use narcotic analgesics, anabolic steroids, diuretics, and certain hormones in sports to increase muscle. strength and bulk and to promote aggressiveness and as a result increase athletic performance. 
  • The side-effects of the use of anabolic steroids are as follows:  
  1. In females: Masculinization, increased aggressiveness, mood swings, depression, abnormal menstrual cycles, excessive growth of hair on body and face, enlargement of the clitoris, deepening of the voice, severe facial and body acne, premature closure of the growth centers of long bones. 

  2. In males: Acne, increased aggressiveness, mood swings, depression, reduction in the size of testicles, decreased sperm production, kidney and liver dysfunction, breast enlargement, premature baldness, prostate gland enlargement, severe facial and body acne, premature closure of the growth centers of long bones causing stunted growth. 
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