Topics
Rational Numbers
 Rational Numbers
 Closure Property of Rational Numbers
 Commutative Property of Rational Numbers
 Associative Property of Rational Numbers
 Distributive Property of Multiplication Over Addition for Rational Numbers
 Identity of Addition and Multiplication of Rational Numbers
 Negative Or Additive Inverse of Rational Numbers
 Reciprocal Or Multiplicative Inverse of Rational Numbers
 Rational Numbers on a Number Line
 Rational Numbers Between Two Rational Numbers
Linear Equations in One Variable
 The Idea of a Variable
 Concept of Equation
 Expressions with Variables
 Balancing an Equation
 The Solution of an Equation
 Linear Equation in One Variable
 Solving Equations Which Have Linear Expressions on One Side and Numbers on the Other Side
 Some Applications Solving Equations Which Have Linear Expressions on One Side and Numbers on the Other Side
 Solving Equations Having the Variable on Both Sides
 Some More Applications on the Basis of Solving Equations Having the Variable on Both Sides
 Reducing Equations to Simpler Form
 Equations Reducible to the Linear Form
Understanding Quadrilaterals
 Concept of Curves
 Different Types of Curves  Closed Curve, Open Curve, Simple Curve.
 Concept of Polygons  Side, Vertex, Adjacent Sides, Adjacent Vertices and Diagonal
 Classification of Polygons
 Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
 Interior Angles of a Polygon
 Exterior Angles of a Polygon and Its Property
 Concept of Quadrilaterals  Sides, Adjacent Sides, Opposite Sides, Angle, Adjacent Angles and Opposite Angles
 Properties of Trapezium
 Properties of Kite
 Properties of a Parallelogram
 Properties of Rhombus
 Property: The Opposite Sides of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Length.
 Property: The Opposite Angles of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Measure.
 Property: The adjacent angles in a parallelogram are supplementary.
 Property: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. (at the point of their intersection)
 Property: The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular bisectors of one another.
 Property: The Diagonals of a Rectangle Are of Equal Length.
 Properties of Rectangle
 Properties of a Square
 Property: The diagonals of a square are perpendicular bisectors of each other.
Practical Geometry
 Introduction to Practical Geometry
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When the Lengths of Four Sides and a Diagonal Are Given
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When Two Diagonals and Three Sides Are Given
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When Two Adjacent Sides and Three Angles Are Known
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When Three Sides and Two Included Angles Are Given
 Some Special Cases
Data Handling
 Concept of Data Handling
 Interpretation of a Pictograph
 Interpretation of Bar Graphs
 Drawing a Bar Graph
 Interpretation of a Double Bar Graph
 Drawing a Double Bar Graph
 Organisation of Data
 Frequency Distribution Table
 Graphical Representation of Data as Histograms
 Concept of Pie Graph (Or a Circlegraph)
 Interpretation of Pie Diagram
 Chance and Probability  Chance
 Basic Ideas of Probability
Squares and Square Roots
 Concept of Square Number
 Properties of Square Numbers
 Some More Interesting Patterns of Square Number
 Finding the Square of a Number
 Concept of Square Roots
 Finding Square Root Through Repeated Subtraction
 Finding Square Root Through Prime Factorisation
 Finding Square Root by Division Method
 Square Root of Decimal Numbers
 Estimating Square Root
Cubes and Cube Roots
Comparing Quantities
 Concept of Ratio
 Concept of Percent and Percentage
 Increase Or Decrease as Percent
 Concept of Discount
 Estimation in Percentages
 Concepts of Cost Price, Selling Price, Total Cost Price, and Profit and Loss, Discount, Overhead Expenses and GST
 Sales Tax, Value Added Tax, and Good and Services Tax
 Concept of Principal, Interest, Amount, and Simple Interest
 Concept of Compound Interest
 Deducing a Formula for Compound Interest
 Rate Compounded Annually Or Half Yearly (Semi Annually)
 Applications of Compound Interest Formula
Algebraic Expressions and Identities
 Algebraic Expressions
 Terms, Factors and Coefficients of Expression
 Types of Algebraic Expressions as Monomials, Binomials, Trinomials, and Polynomials
 Like and Unlike Terms
 Addition of Algebraic Expressions
 Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions
 Multiplication of Algebraic Expressions
 Multiplying Monomial by Monomials
 Multiplying a Monomial by a Binomial
 Multiplying a Monomial by a Trinomial
 Multiplying a Binomial by a Binomial
 Multiplying a Binomial by a Trinomial
 Concept of Identity
 Expansion of (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2
 Expansion of (a  b)2 = a2  2ab + b2
 Expansion of (a + b)(a  b)
 Expansion of (x + a)(x + b)
Mensuration
Visualizing Solid Shapes
Exponents and Powers
Direct and Inverse Proportions
Factorization
 Factors and Multiples
 Factorising Algebraic Expressions
 Factorisation by Taking Out Common Factors
 Factorisation by Regrouping Terms
 Factorisation Using Identities
 Factors of the Form (x + a)(x + b)
 Dividing a Monomial by a Monomial
 Dividing a Polynomial by a Monomial
 Dividing a Polynomial by a Polynomial
 Concept of Find the Error
Introduction to Graphs
 Concept of Bar Graph
 Interpretation of Bar Graphs
 Drawing a Bar Graph
 Concept of Double Bar Graph
 Interpretation of a Double Bar Graph
 Drawing a Double Bar Graph
 Concept of Pie Graph (Or a Circlegraph)
 Graphical Representation of Data as Histograms
 Concept of a Line Graph
 Linear Graphs
 Some Application of Linear Graphs
Playing with Numbers
Notes
Drawing a bar graph:
1) Information about the plants in a nursery is given here. Show it in a bar graph.
Names of Plants  Rose  Mogra 
Hibiscus 
Chrysanthemum 
Number of Plants  70  50  45  80 
Solution:
Take a graph paper.

Draw the X and Y axes, and mark O, their point of intersection. In the centre, write the title ‘Types and number of plants’.

Write the names of the plants on the Xaxis at equal distances.

The number of plants is divisible by 5. So, take the scale 0.5 cm = 5 plants, that is, 1cm = 10 plants on the Yaxis as it can be easily shown on the graph paper. Write the scale in the top righthand corner.

Draw a bar of the appropriate height above the name of each plant on the Xaxis.
2) The following table shows the monthly expenditure of Imran’s family on various items.
Items 
Expenditure (in Rs.) 
House rent  1200 
Food  1400 
Education  800 
Electricity  400 
Transport  600 
Miscellaneous  1000 
To represent this data in the form of a bar diagram, here are the steps.
(a) Draw two perpendicular lines, one vertical and one horizontal.
(b) Along the horizontal line, mark the ‘items’ and along the vertical line, mark the corresponding expenditure.
(c) Take bars of the same width keeping the uniform gap between them.
(d) Choose a suitable scale along the vertical line. Let 1 unit length = 200 and then mark the corresponding values.
Calculate the heights of the bars for various items as shown below.
House rent: 1200 ÷ 200 = 6 units
Food: 1400 ÷ 200 = 7 units
Education: 800 ÷ 200 = 4 units
Electricity: 400 ÷ 200 = 2 units
Transport: 600 ÷ 200 = 3 units
Miscellaneous: 1000 ÷ 200 = 5 units.
Shaalaa.com  How To Draw A Bar Graph?
Related QuestionsVIEW ALL [8]
The names of the heads of some families in a village and the quantity of drinking water their family consumes in one day are given below. Draw a bar graph for this data.
(Scale: On Yaxis, 1cm = 10 litres of water)
Name  Ramesh  Shobha  Ayub  Julie  Rahul 
Litres of water used  30 litres  60 litres  40 litres  50 litres  55 litres 
The names and numbers of animals in a certain zoo are given below. Use the data to make a bar graph. (Scale : on Y  axis, 1cm = 4 animals)
Animals  Deer  Tiger  Monkey  Rabbit  Peacock 
Number  20  4  12  16  8 
The table below gives the number of children who took part in the various items of the talent show as part of the annual school gathering. Make a bar graph to show this data. (Scale: on Yaxis, 1cm = 4 children)
Programme  Theatre  Dance  Vocal music  Instrumental music  Oneact plays 
No. of students  24  40  16  8  4 
Students planted trees in 5 villages of Sangli district. Make a bar graph of this data. (Scale: on Yaxis, 1cm = 100 trees)
Name of place  Dudhgaon  Bagni  Samdoli  Ashta  Kavathepiran 
No. of trees planted  500  350  600  420  540 
Yashwant gives different amounts of time as shown below, to different exercises he does during the week. Draw a bar graph to show the details of his schedule using an appropriate scale.
Type of exercise  Running  Yogasanas  Cycling  Mountaineering  Badminton 
Time  35 Minutes  50 minutes  1 hr 10 min  `1 1/2` hours  45 minutes 
The number of customers who came to a juice centre for one week is given in the table below. Make two different bar graphs to show this data. (Scale: on Yaxis, 1cm = 10 customers, on Y  axis, 1cm = 5 customers)
Type of juice  Orange  Pineapple  Apple  Mango  Pomegranate 
No. of Customers  50  30  25  65  10 