Distribution of the Population in India

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Definition

  • Population Distribution: The term 'Population Distribution' refers to the way the people are spaced over the earth’s surface.

Notes

Distribution of the Population in India:

  • The term 'Population Distribution' refers to the way the people are spaced over the earth’s surface. 
  • Because of the wide variation in resource availability, India's population distribution is quite uneven.
  • The population is mostly concentrated in industrialised areas and good agricultural lands. High mountains, arid lands, densely forested areas, and some remote corners, on the other hand, are sparsely populated, and some are even uninhabited.
  • The major factors influencing population distribution in our country are terrain, climate, soil, water bodies, mineral resources, industries, transportation, and urbanisation,  religion, culture, political issues, economy, human settlements, employment opportunity etc.
India’s Share of World’s Area and Population
  • India's population was 1,210.6 million in March 2011, accounting for 17.5% of the world's population. These 1.21 billion people are dispersed unevenly across our country's vast area of 3.28 million square kilometres, which accounts for 2.4% of the world's area.
  • With a population of 199.5 million, Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in the country, followed by Maharashtra (112.3 million), Bihar (103.8 million), West Bengal (91.3 million), and the combined Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (84.6 million). These five states are home to roughly half of the country's population. 
  • Sikkim is India's least populous state (0.61 million). Rajasthan, India's largest state by area, has only 5.5% of the total population.
  • Among Union territories Delhi is the most populous with population of 16.75 million whereas Lakshadweep has a population of only 64,429 people. 

 Distribution of Population

Example

Study the maps and answer the questions.

  1. States with highest population density.
  2. States with lowest population density.
  3. On the basis of the maps given above, classify the distribution population in India in the following table.
    Sr. No. Population  Density
    (per sq. km.)
    Name of the States/Union
    Territories
    1 less than 100  
    2 101 to 250  
    3 251 to 500  
    4 more than 501  
  4. Correlate the climate and physiography of India with its population distribution and write a note on it.
  1. West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  2. Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Mizoram.
  3. Sr. No. Population  Density
    (per sq. km.)
    Name of the States/Union
    Territories
    1 less than 100 Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim.
    2 101 to 250 Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh.
    3 251 to 500 Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Odisha, Jharkhand, Assam, Tripura.
    4 more than 501 West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, Delhi, Chandigarh, Puducherry, Diu, Daman, Dadra Nagar, Haveli, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  4. (i) Climate and population distribution are closely inter-related.
    (ii) Temperature and rainfall are the two elements of climate which greatly influence the population distribution.
    (iii) Dense population is found in regions with mild climate and moderate rainfall.
    E.g. the northern plain as well as the coastal plains of India
    (iv) Places with heavy rainfall, inaccessibility and dense forests have low population.
    E.g. northeastern states in India
    (v) The snow-covered regions due to extremely cold climatic conditions have less population.
    E.g. the northernmost part of Jammu and Kashmir
    (vi) In certain regions, due to less rainfall and extreme climatic conditions population is sparse.
    E.g. Westernmost part of India in the Thar desert, Rajasthan 

Example

What could be the reason of uneven distribution of population in India?

  1. Geographical factors like soil fertility, pleasant climate, water accessibility, and topography affect the distribution of the population. 
  2. Socioeconomic factors like economic opportunities, literacy rate, and accessibility to transportation and communication facilities affect the distribution of the population in India.
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