CROP PROTECTION MANAGEMENT:
Factors that can affect the production of crops are weeds, pests and diseases.
Weeds: Along with crops, sometimes some other plants also grow up which are not needed. These are called weeds. Weeds can affect the crop as they utilise the nutrients from the soil that are meant to be used by the crops. Therefore, removal of weeds from cultivated fields during the early stages of crop growth is essential for a good harvest.
Pests: Generally insect pests attack the plants in three ways:
(i) they cut the root, stem and leaf
(ii) they suck the cell sap from various parts of the plant
(iii) they bore into stem and fruits. They thus affect the health of the crop and reduce yields.
Pest Controlling Methods:
Pesticides and insecticides are sprayed on the fields to kill the germs.
Crops should be checked timely to ensure safety against pests.
Usage of effective cropping methods such as crop rotation ensures insect management in the fields.
Sometimes summer ploughing is also used to destroy the weeds and pests.
Disease Management Methods:
Selecting the crop that suits the temperature and climatic conditions of the place.
Planting the seeds on right time and in an environment that favours their growth.
Using herbicides such as dicamba and glufosinate ammonium and fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate, potassium sulfate.
Using crop rotation method and mixed cropping.
Storage of Grains
Factors that lead to storage losses of crops are:
Biotic Factors: Like insects, fungi, bacteria, rodents and mites.
Abiotic Factors: Like excessive temperature and moisture.
How to prevent storage loss?
- Maintaining the storage houses properly
- Cleaning the grains properly before storage
- Drying the grains properly before storage in sunlight as well as in the shade