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Crop Production Management - Cropping Patterns

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Cropping Patterns:

Different cropping patterns are used by farmers in order to increase the crop yield:

  • Mixed Cropping
  • Intercropping
  • Crop Rotation

Mixed Cropping:

  • It is a cropping pattern in which two or more crops are grown together in the same field.
  • The main aim of this cropping method is to ensure some healed even if one of the crops fails to grow properly.
  • The seeds of different crops are combined and planted together.
  • Same fertilizers are used for all the crops.
  • For Example, wheat and gram, wheat and mustard, groundnut and sunflower.

Intercropping:

  • It is a cropping method in which two or more crops are grown together in a field but in a specific pattern.
  • The seeds of these crops are not combined before plantation.
  • Both the crops used different kinds of fertilizers depending upon their own requirements.
  • The main objective of this method is to ensure the maximum productivity of the crops.
  • Since the crops have different nutrient requirements they would use maximum nutrients from the soil.
  • Diseases and pest would also not easily spread to all the crops.
  • For Example, soybean and maize, finger millets and cowpea.

Crop Rotation

In this cropping method, different types of crops are chosen and irrigated on the same piece of land sequentially.

  • The rotation of crops depends upon the soil, climate and water retention of the soil.
  • If farmers grow the same crop on the land for long-term the same nutrients keep on depleting from the soil which leads to a decrease in the soil fertility.

  • But when crops with different nutritional requirements are grown the soil nutrients get enriched and the fertility of the land is maintained.

  • Different crops are not susceptible to all kinds of pests and diseases.

  • Planting different crops on rotation can lead to a better yield.

  • Crop rotation allows a reduction in the number of fertilizers and pesticides on the fields.

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