Chemical Reactions and Equations
- Chemical Equation
- Balancing Chemical Equation
- Types of Chemical Change or Chemical Reaction
- Direct Combination (or Synthesis) Reaction
- Decomposition Reactions
- Single Displacement Reactions
- Double Displacement Reaction
- Oxidation, Reduction and Redox Reactions
- Corrosion of Metals and Its Prevention
- Rancidity of Food and Its Prevention
Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour (Chemistry)
Acids, Bases and Salts
- Bases (Alkalis)
- Properties of Acids
- Properties of Bases (Alkalis)
- Acid or a Base in a Water Solution
- Similarities and Differences Between Acids and Bases
- Strength of Acidic or Basic Solutions
- Important Salts in Daily Life
- Preparation and Uses of Sodium Hydroxide
- Preparation and Uses of Bleaching Powder
- Preparation and Uses of Baking Soda
- Preparation and Uses of Washing Soda
- Preparation and Uses of Plaster of Paris
World of Living (Biology)
Metals and Non Metals
- Types of Elements: Metals
- Physical Properties of Metals
- Chemical Properties of Metal
- Types of Elements: Non-metal
- Physical Properties of Non-metal
- Chemical Properties of Non-metal
- Electrovalent (or Ionic) Bond
- Reactivity Series of Metals
- Extraction of Metals
- Refining of Metals
- Corrosion of Metals and Its Prevention
- The Covalent Bond
Natural Phenomena (Physics)
Carbon and its Compounds
- Carbon: a Versatile Element
- The Covalent Bond
- Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds
- Allotropy and Allotropes of Carbon
- Crystalline Allotropes of Carbon: Diamond
- Crystalline Allotropes of Carbon: Graphite
- Crystalline Allotropes of Carbon: Fullerene
- Chains, Branches and Rings of Carbon Compound
- Functional Groups in Carbon Compounds
- Homologous Series of Carbon Compound
- Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (IUPAC)
- Chemical Properties of Carbon Compound
- Ethanoic Acid
- Cleansing Action of Soap
Effects of Current (Physics)
Periodic Classification of Elements
- History of Periodic Table: Early Attempts at the Classification of Elements
- Dobereiner’s Triads
- Newland's Law of Octaves
- Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
- Merits and Demerits of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
- The Modern Periodic Table
- Periodic Properties
- Periodic Properties: Valency
- Periodic Properties: Atomic Radius Or Atomic Size
- Periodic Properties: Metallic Character
- Periodic Properties: Non-metallic Character
- Living Organisms and Life Processes
- Nutrients and Nutrition
- Mode of Nutrition in Plant
- Autotrophic Nutrition
- Heterotrophic Nutrition
- Different Ways of Taking Food
- Human Digestive System
- The Mouth and Buccal Cavity
- The Teeth and Its Structure
- The Salivary Glands
- Swallowing and Peristalsis
- The Food Pipe/Oesophagus
- The Stomach
- The Small Intestine
- Absorption of Food
- The Large Intestine
- Assimilation of Food
- Respiration in Organisms
- Breathing in Other Animals
- Types of Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
- Human Respiratory System
- Composition of Blood: Plasma (The Liquid Portion of Blood)
- Composition of Blood: Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
- Composition of Blood: White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
- Composition of Blood: Blood Platelets (Thrombocytes)
- Blood Circulatory System in Human
- Human Heart
- Blood Vessels – Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries
- Circulation of Blood in the Heart (Functioning of Heart)
- Types of Blood Circulation
- Heart Beat - Heart Sounds "LUBB" and "DUP"
- Function of Platelets - Clotting of Blood (Coagulation)
- Lymph and Lymphatic System
- Blood Pressure (B.P.)
- Transportation of Water and Food in Plants
- Water and Mineral Absorption by Root
- Translocation of Water (Ascent of Sap)
- Translocation of Mineral Ions
- Transport of Food
- Excretion: Substances to Be Eliminated
- Human Excretory System
- Function of the Kidney - “Production of Urine”
- Excretion in Plants
Control and Co-ordination
- Control and Co-ordination in Animals
- Human Nervous System
- Neuron (Or Nerve Cell) and Its Types
- Neuron as Structural and Functional Unit of Neural System
- Nerve Fibres
- Major Division of the Nervous System
- Central Nervous System (CNS)
- Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
- The Human Brain
- Central Nervous System (CNS): Structure of Human Brain
- Reflex and Reflex Action
- Nervous Pathways in Reflexes
- Reflex Arc
- Co-ordination in Plant: Tropism in Plants
- Plant Hormones
- Types of Plant Hormones: Auxins
- Types of Plant Hormones: Gibberellins
- Types of Plant Hormones: Ethylene
- Types of Plant Hormones: Cytokinins
- Types of Plant Hormones: Abscisic Acid (ABA)
- Types of Plant Hormones: Ethylene
- Hormones in Animals
- Human Endocrine System
- Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis Gland
- Thyroid Gland
- Parathyroid Gland
- Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans)
- Adrenal Gland (Suprarenal Gland)
- Reproductive Glands (Gonads)
- Thymus Gland
How do Organisms Reproduce?
- Accumulation of Variation During Reproduction
- Reproduction in Plant
- Mode of Reproduction in Plant
- Asexual Reproduction in Plant
- Natural Vegetative Reproduction
- Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
- Sexual Reproduction in Animals
- Human Reproductive System
- The Male Reproductive System
- The Female Reproductive System
- Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)
- Reproductive Health
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
Heredity and Evolution
- Accumulation of Variation During Reproduction
- Gregor Johann Mendel – Father of Genetics
- Inheritance of One Gene (Monohybrid Cross)
- Inheritance of Two Genes (Dihybrid Cross)
- Mendelian Inheritance - Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
- Sex Determination
- Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution
- Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
- Theories of Origin of Life
- Evolution and Classiffication
- Evidences for Biological Evolution
- Evolution by Stages
- Origin and Evolution of Man
Light - Reflection and Refraction
- Reflection of Light
- Law of Reflection of Light
- Mirrors and Its Types
- Plane Mirror and Reflection
- Spherical Mirrors
- Rules for the Construction of Image Formed by a Spherical Mirror
- Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors
- Concave Mirror
- Image Formation by Concave Mirror
- Convex Mirror
- Image Formation by Convex Mirror
- Sign Convention for Reflection by Spherical Mirrors
- Mirror Equation/Formula
- Linear Magnification (M) Due to Spherical Mirrors
- Refraction of Light
- Refraction of Light Through a Rectangular Glass Slab
- Law of Refraction of Light
- Refractive Index
- Spherical Lens
- Images Formed by Sperical Lenses
- Guideline for Image Formation Due to Refraction Through a Convex and Concave Lens
- Concave Lens
- Images Formed Due to Refraction Through a Concave Lens
- Convex Lens
- Images Formed Due to Refraction Through a Convex Lens
- Sign Convention for Spherical Lenses
- Lens Formula
- Magnification Due to Spherical Lenses
- Power of a Lens
The Human Eye and the Colourful World
- Human Eye: Structure of the Eye
- Working of the Human Eye
- Eye Defect and Its Correction: Myopia Or Near-sightedness
- Eye Defect and its correction: Hypermetropia or far-sightedness
- Eye Defect and Its Correction: Presbyopia
- Care of the Eyes
- Refraction of Light Through a Prism
- Dispersion of Light Through Prism and Formation of Spectrum
- Atmospheric Refraction
- Application of Atmospheric Refraction
- Scattering of Light and Its Types
- Applications of Scattering of Light
- Electric Current
- Electric Circuit
- Potential and Potential Difference
- Symbols and Functions of Various Components of an Electric Circuits
- Ohm's Law (V = IR)
- Factors Affecting the Resistance of a Conductor
- Electrical Resistivity and Electrical Conductivity
- Resistors in Series
- Resistances in Parallel
- Effects of Electric Current
- Heating Effect of Electric Current
- Electrical Power
Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
- Magnetic Effect of Electric Current
- Magnetic Field
- Magnetic Field Lines
- Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carrying Straight Conductor
- Rule to Find the Direction of Magnetic Field
- Magnetic Field Due to Current in a Loop (Or Circular Coil)
- Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carving Cylindrical Coil (or Solenoid)
- Force on a Current Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field
- Electric Motor
- Electromagnetic Induction
- Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induction
- Electric Generator
- Alternating Current (A.C.) Generator
- Direct Current Motor
- Household Electrical Circuits
- Distinction Between an A.C. Generator and D.C. Motor
- Types of current: Alternating Current (A.C.) and Direct Current (D.C.)
Sources of Energy
- Source of Energy
- Conventional Sources of Energy and Non-conventional Sources of Energy
- Fossil Fuels
- Heat Energy (Thermal Energy)
- Hydroelectric Energy
- Wind Energy
- Solar Energy
- Solar Energy Devices
- Energy from the Sea
- Geothermal Energy
- Nuclear Energy
- Nuclear Fission
- Different Forms of Energy
- Environmental Consequences
- How Long Will an Energy Source Last Us?
Sustainable Management of Natural Resources
- Sustainability of Natural Resources
- Case Study: Ganga Pollution and Ganga Action Plan
- Solid Waste Management
- Five R’s of Waste Management
- Conservation and Judicious Use of Resources
- Forests: Our Lifeline
- Stakeholders of Forest
- Conservation of Forest
- Conservation of Wildlife
- Water Management (Conservation of Water)
- Fresh Water Management
- Non-crystalline/Amorphous Forms: Coal
- Conservation of Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Resources
- Overview of Natural Resource Management
The control and coordination in human beings is one of the important factor that is required for the proper functioning of the body. it takes place through the nervous system and hormonal system which is called endocrine system. An effector is a part of the body which responds to a stimulus according to the instructions sent from the nervous system. The muscles and glands are effectors of the body.
The Coordination in animals is controlled by the Nervous system.
It is the network of nerve cells and fibres which transfers information via electrical impulses from one part of the body to other parts of the body. The structural and functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron and it includes:
Human Nervous System: The nervous system in humans can be divided into three main parts
1. Central Nervous System: The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain controls all the functions in the human body. The spinal cord works as the relay channel for signals between the brain and the peripheral nervous system.
2. Peripheral Nervous System: The peripheral nervous system is composed of the cranial nerves and spinal nerves. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. The cranial nerves come our of the brain and go to the organs in the head region. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves. The spinal nerves come out of the spinal cord and go to the organs which are below the head region.
3. Autonomous Nervous System: The autonomous nervous system is composed of a chain of nerve ganglion which runs along the spinal cord. It controls all the involuntary actions in the human body. The autonomous nervous system can be divided into two parts :
Sympathetic nervous system.
Parasympathetic nervous system.
Sympathetic Nervous System: This part of the autonomous nervous system heightens the activity of an organ as per the need. For example, during running, there is an increased demand for oxygen by the body. This is fulfilled by an increased breathing rate and increased heart rate. The sympathetic nervous system works to increase the breathing rate the heart rate, in this case.
Parasympathetic Nervous System: This part of the autonomous nervous system slows the down the activity of an organ and thus has a calming effect. During sleep, the breathing rate slows down and so does the heart rate. This is facilitated by the parasympathetic nervous system. It can be said that the parasympathetic nervous system helps in the conservation of energy.
Functions of the nervous system
Nervous system receives information from the environment.
To receive the information from the various body.
To act according to through muscles and glands.
A neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system.
Neuron is a highly specialized cell which is responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses. The neuron consists of the following parts
(i) Cyton or cell body: The cell body or cyton is somewhat star-shaped, with many hair like structures protruding out of the margin. These hair-like structures are called dendrites. Dendrites receive the nerve impulses.
(ii) Axon: This is the tail of the neuron. It ends in several hair-like structures, called axon terminals. The axon terminals relay nerve impulses.
(iii) Myelin sheath: There is an insulator cover around the axon. This is called myelin sheath. The myelin sheath insulates the axon against nerve impulse from the surroundings.
Types of Neuron
Sensory neuron: These neurons receive signals from a sense organ.
Motor neuron: These neurons send signals to a muscle or a gland.
Association or relay neuron: These neurons relay the signals between sensory neuron and motor neuron.
Synapse: The point contact between the terminal branches of axon of one neuron with the dendrite of another neuron is called synapse.
Neuromuscular Junction: It is the point where a muscle fibre comes in contact with a motor neuron carrying nerve impulse from the control nervous system.
Transmission of nerve impulse: Nerve impulses travel in the following manner from one neutron to the next: Dendrites → cell body → axon → nerve endings at the tip of axon → synapse → dendrite of next neuron.
Chemical released from axon tip of one neuron, cross the synapse or neuromuscular junction to reach the next cell.
Receptors: Receptors are the specialized tips of the nerve fibres that collect the information to be conducted by the nerves.
Receptors are in the sense organs of the animals.
These are classified as follows :
Phono-receptors: These are present in inner ear.
Functions: The main functions are hearing and balance of the body.
Photo-receptors: These are present in the eye.
Function: These are responsible for visual stimulus.
Thermo-receptors: These are present in skin.
Functions: These receptors are responsible for pain, touch and heat stimuli.
These receptors are also known as thermo-receptors.
Olfactory-receptors: These are present in nose.
Functions: These receptors receive smell.
Gustatory-receptors: These are present in the tongue.
Functions: These helps in taste detection.
It is a series of endocrine glands and hormones. The endocrine glands are the ductless glands which secrete the hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Hormones are chemical messengers mainly composed of protein which assist the nervous system in control and coordination. The pituitary gland, Thyroid Gland, Adrenal gland Pancreas, Testis, and Ovary are the different glands of the Endocrine system.