Topics
Rational Numbers
 Concept of Rational Numbers
 Closure Property of Rational Numbers
 Commutativity Property of Rational Numbers
 Associativity of Rational Numbers
 Distributivity of Multiplication Over Addition for Rational
 Identity of Addition and Multiplication
 Negative of a Number
 Additive Inverse of Rational Number
 Rational Numbers on a Number Line
 Rational Numbers Between Two Rational Numbers
Linear Equations in One Variable
 The Idea of a Variable
 Expressions with Variables
 Concept of Equation
 Balancing an Equation
 The Solution of an Equation
 Linear Equation in One Variable
 Solving Equations Which Have Linear Expressions on One Side and Numbers on the Other Side
 Some Applications Solving Equations Which Have Linear Expressions on One Side and Numbers on the Other Side
 Solving Equations Having the Variable on Both Sides
 Some More Applications on the Basis of Solving Equations Having the Variable on Both Sides
 Reducing Equations to Simpler Form
 Equations Reducible to the Linear Form
Understanding Quadrilaterals
 Concept of Curves
 Different Types of Curves  Closed Curve, Open Curve, Simple Curve.
 Concept of Polygons  Side, Vertex, Adjacent Sides, Adjacent Vertices and Diagonal
 Classification of Polygons  Regular Polygon, Irregular Polygon, Convex Polygon, Concave Polygon, Simple Polygon and Complex Polygon
 Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
 Interior Angles of a Polygon
 Exterior Angles of a Polygon and Its Property
 Concept of Quadrilaterals  Sides, Adjacent Sides, Opposite Sides, Angle, Adjacent Angles and Opposite Angles
 Properties of Trapezium
 Properties of Kite
 Properties of a Parallelogram
 Properties of Rhombus
 Property: The Opposite Sides of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Length.
 Property: The Opposite Angles of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Measure.
 Property: The adjacent angles in a parallelogram are supplementary.
 Property: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. (at the point of their intersection)
 Property: The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular bisectors of one another.
 Property: The Diagonals of a Rectangle Are of Equal Length.
 Properties of Rectangle
 Properties of a Square
 Property: The diagonals of a square are perpendicular bisectors of each other.
Practical Geometry
 Introduction to Practical Geometry
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When the Lengths of Four Sides and a Diagonal Are Given
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When Two Diagonals and Three Sides Are Given
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When Two Adjacent Sides and Three Angles Are Known
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When Three Sides and Two Included Angles Are Given
 Some Special Cases
Data Handling
 Concept of Data Handling
 Interpretation of a Pictograph
 Interpretation of Bar Graphs
 Drawing a Bar Graph
 Interpretation of a Double Bar Graph
 Drawing a Double Bar Graph
 Organisation of Data
 Frequency Distribution Table
 Graphical Representation of Data as Histograms
 Concept of Pie Graph (Or a Circlegraph)
 Interpretation of Pie Diagram
 Chance and Probability  Chance
 Basic Ideas of Probability
Squares and Square Roots
 Concept of Square Number
 Properties of Square Numbers
 Some More Interesting Patterns of Square Number
 Finding the Square of a Number
 Concept of Square Roots
 Finding Square Root Through Repeated Subtraction
 Finding Square Root Through Prime Factorisation
 Finding Square Root by Division Method
 Square Root of Decimal Numbers
 Estimating Square Root
Cubes and Cube Roots
Comparing Quantities
 Concept of Ratio
 Concept of Percent and Percentage
 Increase Or Decrease as Percent
 Concept of Discount
 Estimation in Percentages
 Concepts of Cost Price, Selling Price, Total Cost Price, and Profit and Loss, Discount, Overhead Expenses and GST
 Sales Tax, Value Added Tax, and Good and Services Tax
 Concept of Principal, Interest, Amount, and Simple Interest
 Concept of Compound Interest
 Deducing a Formula for Compound Interest
 Rate Compounded Annually Or Half Yearly (Semi Annually)
 Applications of Compound Interest Formula
Algebraic Expressions and Identities
 Algebraic Expressions
 Terms, Factors and Coefficients of Expression
 Types of Algebraic Expressions as Monomials, Binomials, Trinomials Or Polynomials
 Like and Unlike Terms
 Addition of Algebraic Expressions
 Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions
 Multiplication of Algebraic Expressions
 Multiplying Monomial by Monomials
 Multiplying a Monomial by a Binomial
 Multiplying a Monomial by a Trinomial
 Multiplying a Binomial by a Binomial
 Multiplying a Binomial by a Trinomial
 Concept of Identity
 Expansion of (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2
 Expansion of (a  b)2 = a2  2ab + b2
 Expansion of (a + b)(a  b)
 Expansion of (x + a)(x + b)
Visualizing Solid Shapes
Mensuration
Exponents and Powers
Direct and Inverse Proportions
Factorization
 Factors and Multiples
 Factorising Algebraic Expressions
 Factorisation by Taking Out Common Factors
 Factorisation by Regrouping Terms
 Factorisation Using Identities
 Factors of the Form (x + a)(x + b)
 Dividing a Monomial by a Monomial
 Dividing a Polynomial by a Monomial
 Dividing a Polynomial by a Polynomial
 Concept of Find the Error
Introduction to Graphs
 Concept of Bar Graph
 Interpretation of Bar Graphs
 Drawing a Bar Graph
 Concept of Double Bar Graph
 Interpretation of a Double Bar Graph
 Drawing a Double Bar Graph
 Concept of Pie Graph (Or a Circlegraph)
 Graphical Representation of Data as Histograms
 Concept of a Line Graph
 Linear Graphs
 Linear Graphs
 Some Application of Linear Graphs
Playing with Numbers
definition
Equation: An equation is a condition on a variable. It is expressed by saying that expression with a variable is equal to a fixed number. e.g. x – 3 = 10.
notes
Equation:

An equation is a condition on a variable. It is expressed by saying that expression with a variable is equal to a fixed number. e.g. x – 3 = 10.

An equation has an equal sign (=) between its two sides. The equation says that the value of the lefthand side (LHS) is equal to the value of the righthand side (RHS). If the LHS is not equal to the RHS, we do not get an equation.

An equation is a condition on a variable such that two expressions in the variable should have equal value.

5t + 28 = 10 is an equation.

In an equation, there is always an equality sign. The equality sign shows that the value of the expression to the left of the sign (the lefthand side or LHS) is equal to the value of the expression to the right of the sign (the righthand side or RHS).
4p – 3 = 13 ( ∴ p = – 4) 
If there is some sign other than the equality sign between the LHS and the RHS, it is not an equation. Thus, 4x + 5 > 65 is not an equation. It says that the value of (4x + 5) is greater than 65. Similarly, 4x + 5 < 65 is not an equation. It says that the value of (4x + 5) is smaller than 65.

An equation remains the same when the expressions on the left and on the right are interchanged.
Example
Write the following statement in the form of the equation:
The sum of three times x and 11 is 32.
Three times x is 3x.
Sum of 3x and 11 is 3x + 11. The sum is 32.
The equation is 3x + 11 = 32.
Example
Write the following statement in the form of the equation:
If you subtract 5 from 6 times a number, you get 7.
Let us say the number is z; z multiplied by 6 is 6z.
Subtracting 5 from 6z, one gets 6z – 5. The result is 7.
The equation is 6z – 5 = 7.
Example
Write the following statement in the form of the equation:
Onefourth of m is 3 more than 7.
Onefourth of m is `m/4`.
It is greater than 7 by 3. This means the difference `(m/4–7)` is 3.
The equation is `m/4` – 7 = 3.
Example
Raju’s father’s age is 5 years more than three times Raju’s age. Raju’s father is 44 years old. Set up an equation to find Raju’s age.
Let us take it to be y years. Three times Raju’s age is 3y years.
Raju’s father’s age is 5 years more than 3y; that is, Raju’s father is (3y + 5) years old. It is also given that Raju’s father is 44 years old.
Therefore, 3y + 5 =44.
This is an equation in y. It will give Raju’s age when solved.
Example
A shopkeeper sells mangoes in two types of boxes, one small and one large. A large box contains as many as 8 small boxes plus 4 loose mangoes. Set up an equation which gives the number of mangoes in each small box. The number of mangoes in a large box is given to be 100.
Let a small box contain m mangoes.
A large box contains 4 more than 8 times m, that is, 8m + 4 mangoes.
But this is given to be 100.
Thus 8m + 4 =100.
You can get the number of mangoes in a small box by solving this equation.