Topics
Rational Numbers
 Rational Numbers
 Closure Property of Rational Numbers
 Commutative Property of Rational Numbers
 Associative Property of Rational Numbers
 Distributive Property of Multiplication Over Addition for Rational Numbers
 Identity of Addition and Multiplication of Rational Numbers
 Negative Or Additive Inverse of Rational Numbers
 Reciprocal Or Multiplicative Inverse of Rational Numbers
 Rational Numbers on a Number Line
 Rational Numbers Between Two Rational Numbers
Linear Equations in One Variable
 The Idea of a Variable
 Concept of Equation
 Expressions with Variables
 Balancing an Equation
 The Solution of an Equation
 Linear Equation in One Variable
 Solving Equations Which Have Linear Expressions on One Side and Numbers on the Other Side
 Some Applications Solving Equations Which Have Linear Expressions on One Side and Numbers on the Other Side
 Solving Equations Having the Variable on Both Sides
 Some More Applications on the Basis of Solving Equations Having the Variable on Both Sides
 Reducing Equations to Simpler Form
 Equations Reducible to the Linear Form
Understanding Quadrilaterals
 Concept of Curves
 Different Types of Curves  Closed Curve, Open Curve, Simple Curve.
 Concept of Polygons  Side, Vertex, Adjacent Sides, Adjacent Vertices and Diagonal
 Classification of Polygons
 Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
 Interior Angles of a Polygon
 Exterior Angles of a Polygon and Its Property
 Concept of Quadrilaterals  Sides, Adjacent Sides, Opposite Sides, Angle, Adjacent Angles and Opposite Angles
 Properties of Trapezium
 Properties of Kite
 Properties of a Parallelogram
 Properties of Rhombus
 Property: The Opposite Sides of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Length.
 Property: The Opposite Angles of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Measure.
 Property: The adjacent angles in a parallelogram are supplementary.
 Property: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. (at the point of their intersection)
 Property: The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular bisectors of one another.
 Property: The Diagonals of a Rectangle Are of Equal Length.
 Properties of Rectangle
 Properties of a Square
 Property: The diagonals of a square are perpendicular bisectors of each other.
Practical Geometry
 Introduction to Practical Geometry
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When the Lengths of Four Sides and a Diagonal Are Given
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When Two Diagonals and Three Sides Are Given
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When Two Adjacent Sides and Three Angles Are Known
 Constructing a Quadrilateral When Three Sides and Two Included Angles Are Given
 Some Special Cases
Data Handling
 Concept of Data Handling
 Interpretation of a Pictograph
 Interpretation of Bar Graphs
 Drawing a Bar Graph
 Interpretation of a Double Bar Graph
 Drawing a Double Bar Graph
 Organisation of Data
 Frequency Distribution Table
 Graphical Representation of Data as Histograms
 Concept of Pie Graph (Or a Circlegraph)
 Interpretation of Pie Diagram
 Chance and Probability  Chance
 Basic Ideas of Probability
Squares and Square Roots
 Concept of Square Number
 Properties of Square Numbers
 Some More Interesting Patterns of Square Number
 Finding the Square of a Number
 Concept of Square Roots
 Finding Square Root Through Repeated Subtraction
 Finding Square Root Through Prime Factorisation
 Finding Square Root by Division Method
 Square Root of Decimal Numbers
 Estimating Square Root
Cubes and Cube Roots
Comparing Quantities
 Concept of Ratio
 Concept of Percent and Percentage
 Increase Or Decrease as Percent
 Concept of Discount
 Estimation in Percentages
 Concepts of Cost Price, Selling Price, Total Cost Price, and Profit and Loss, Discount, Overhead Expenses and GST
 Sales Tax, Value Added Tax, and Good and Services Tax
 Concept of Principal, Interest, Amount, and Simple Interest
 Concept of Compound Interest
 Deducing a Formula for Compound Interest
 Rate Compounded Annually Or Half Yearly (Semi Annually)
 Applications of Compound Interest Formula
Algebraic Expressions and Identities
 Algebraic Expressions
 Terms, Factors and Coefficients of Expression
 Types of Algebraic Expressions as Monomials, Binomials, Trinomials, and Polynomials
 Like and Unlike Terms
 Addition of Algebraic Expressions
 Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions
 Multiplication of Algebraic Expressions
 Multiplying Monomial by Monomials
 Multiplying a Monomial by a Binomial
 Multiplying a Monomial by a Trinomial
 Multiplying a Binomial by a Binomial
 Multiplying a Binomial by a Trinomial
 Concept of Identity
 Expansion of (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2
 Expansion of (a  b)2 = a2  2ab + b2
 Expansion of (a + b)(a  b)
 Expansion of (x + a)(x + b)
Mensuration
Visualizing Solid Shapes
Exponents and Powers
Direct and Inverse Proportions
Factorization
 Factors and Multiples
 Factorising Algebraic Expressions
 Factorisation by Taking Out Common Factors
 Factorisation by Regrouping Terms
 Factorisation Using Identities
 Factors of the Form (x + a)(x + b)
 Dividing a Monomial by a Monomial
 Dividing a Polynomial by a Monomial
 Dividing a Polynomial by a Polynomial
 Concept of Find the Error
Introduction to Graphs
 Concept of Bar Graph
 Interpretation of Bar Graphs
 Drawing a Bar Graph
 Concept of Double Bar Graph
 Interpretation of a Double Bar Graph
 Drawing a Double Bar Graph
 Concept of Pie Graph (Or a Circlegraph)
 Graphical Representation of Data as Histograms
 Concept of a Line Graph
 Linear Graphs
 Some Application of Linear Graphs
Playing with Numbers
Definition
Bar graph: A bar graph is a representation of numbers using bars of uniform width and the lengths of the bars depend upon the frequency and the scale you have chosen.
Notes
Graphical Representation of Data:

Data is represented graphically to give a clear idea of what it represents.

It is well said that one picture is better than a thousand words.

Usually, comparisons among the individual items are best shown by means of graphs.

The representation then becomes easier to understand than the actual data.
1. Bar Graph:

A bar graph is used to show a comparison among categories.

A bar graph is a representation of numbers using bars of uniform width and the lengths of the bars depend upon the frequency and the scale you have chosen.

A bar chart or bar graph is a chart or graph that presents categorical data with rectangular bars with heights or lengths proportional to the values that they represent.
Choosing a Scale:

A bar graph is a representation of numbers using bars of uniform width and the lengths of the bars depend upon the frequency and the scale you have chosen.

Large numbers cannot be represented in a bar graph, so the scaling factor is used to reduce or scale down large numbers.
Parts of a Bar Graph:

Title: The title explains what the graph is about.

Scale: The scale of a bar graph is the range of values presented along either the horizontal or vertical axis. A bar graph is a representation of numbers using bars of uniform width and the lengths of the bars depend upon the frequency and the scale you have chosen. Large numbers cannot be represented in a bar graph, so the scaling factor is used to reduce or scale down large numbers.

Interval: Interval is the smallest quantity between two tick marks along an axis.

Labels: Both the side and the bottom of the bar graph have a label that tells what kind of data is shown. Xaxis describes what each data point on the line represents and the yaxis shows the numeric value for each point on the line.

Bars: The bar measures the data number.

Key: Explains any additional information included in the graph. Many times, this will show different colors or symbols used to represent different categories. It is needed only when data about more than one category are shown in the graph.

Data values: Data values are the actual numbers for each data point.
Shaalaa.com  Selecting Right Scale
Series: Concept of Bar Graph
Related QuestionsVIEW ALL [6]
The following chart gives the growth in height in terms of percentage of full height of boys and girls with their respective ages.
Age (in years)  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  17 
Boys  72%  75%  78%  81%  84%  88%  92%  95%  98%  99%  100% 
Girls  77%  81%  84%  88%  91%  95%  98%  99%  99.5%  100%  100% 
Draw the line graph of above data on the same sheet and answer the following questions.
(a) In which year both the boys and the girls achieve their maximum height?
(b) Who grows faster at puberty (14 years to 16 years of age)?