Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary EducationHSC Science Class 12th
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Concept of Mutation

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Topics

description

  • Types of mutation
  • Mutagenic agents
  • Chromosomal mutations

notes

Mutation:

  • Mutation is a phenomenon which results in alteration of DNA sequences and consequently results in changes in the genotype and phenotype of an organism. 
  • In addition to recombination, mutation is another phenomenon that leads to variation in DNA.  
  • Loss (deletion) or gain (insertion/duplication) of a segment of DNA results in alteration in chromosomes. 
  • Since genes are located on the chromosome, alteration in chromosomes results in abnormalities or aberration.  
  • Chromosomal aberrations are commonly observed in cancerous cells. Mutations arise due to change in a single base pair of DNA known as point mutation. Eg, sickle cell anemia.  
  • Deletion and insertions of base pairs of DNA causes frame shift mutations.  
  • The chemical and physical factors that induce mutations are referred to as mutagens. Eg., UV radiations.
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