- Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions
- General properties of Acids, Bases and Salts
- examples and uses
Substances that ionize (break off) in an aqueous solution to produce hydrogen (H+) ions are known as Acids and the substances that ionize in an aqueous solution to produce hydroxide (OH-) ions are known as Bases.
Salts in chemistry is a substance produced by the neutralization reaction of an acid with a base. A salt is a compound composed of two ions, a positively charged ion and a negatively charged ion. The attraction between the two ions forms strong ionic bonds, giving salts a hard and brittle crystalline structure.
The process where acids and bases neutralize each other to form salt and water is known as neutralization.
- Acid is a compound which yields hydrogen ion (H+), when dissolved in water.
HCl + H2O → H++ Cl−
- Acid is sour to the taste and it is corrosive in nature. The pH of acids is less than 7.
- All acids react with metal to release hydrogen gas. For example, zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid to form zinc chloride and hydrogen gas.
Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
- When acids react with limestone (CaCO3), it produces carbon dioxide. For example, HCl reacts with limestone to produce carbonic acid and calcium chloride.
- Acids are classified into organic and inorganic acids. The best example of organic acid is acetic acid (CH3COOH), and inorganic acids are those which are produced from minerals; for example, sulphuric acid (H2SO4), and hydrochloric acid. Etc.
- Acid usually converts blue litmus paper to red litmus paper.
- Acids have a tendency to quickly corrode the metal surfaces.
- Some Acids are highly corrosive in nature.
- In Acidic solution Methyl orange gives Red colour.
- Acids turn the pink colour of Phenolphthalein to colourless.
Examples:- Lemons, oranges, vinegar, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid.
Uses:- Benzoic acid (salt used to preserve food),
Carbonic acid- Used to make carbonated drinks.
Ethanoic acid- Used to clean metals before electroplating/processing leather/household cleaning/ maintenance of swimming pools.
Sulphuric acid- To make fertilizers, polymer, and detergent
Strong acids: These acids get completely (100%) ionized in the aqueous solutions. Thus, at equilibrium, the concentration of acid molecules becomes very less and concentration of hydrogen ion reaches to the maximum; for example, HCL, HNO3, HClO4
Weak acids: These acids are only partially ionized in solution at equilibrium state. At equilibrium state, molecules of acid are present in a considerable amount and the concentration of hydrogen ion is less, for example, HF, CH3COOH
- Bases are compounds which yields hydroxide ion (OH−), when it is dissolved in water.
- Bases are bitter in taste and are corrosive in nature. They usually feel slippery and very soapy.
- Bases are good conductor of electricity and usually shows a pH value of more than 7.
- Bases react with oils and grease to form molecules of soap.
- Bases convert red litmus paper to blue litmus paper.
- In Basic solution Methyl orange gives Yellow colour
- Phenolphthalein solution turns pink in the presence of a base
Examples:- Soap, toothpaste, bleach, cleaning agents, lime water, ammonia water, sodium hydroxide.
Ammonia- Used in the production of fertilizers, used in manufacturing of nitric acid, to prevent clotting in natural and synthetic latex.
Aluminium hydroxide- Often used to make gastric medicine-antacid.,
Calcium hydroxide- Used to make cement, lime water, help with application of sewage treatment, and neutralize soil's acidity.
Strong bases: These are the bases which are completely ionized in water to produce hydroxide ions, e.g., sodium hydroxide.
NaOH(s) ⇌ Na+(aq) + OH−(aq)
Weak bases: These are the bases which are partially ionized and the equilibrium lies mostly towards the reactants side, e.g., ammonia in water.
NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4+(aq) + OH−(aq)
- Salts are ionic in nature due to the presence of ions.
- They are brittle, hard and crystalline solids.
- Salt is white, odourless and it has a salty taste.
- All potassium (K), ammonium (NH4+) and sodium (Na) salts are soluble in water (H2O).
- Sodium Chloride(NaCl) generally known as ‘Common salt’ or ‘Table salt’ is used in our day to day life.
Examples:- Copper Sulfate, Sodium Bisulfate, Calcium Chloride, Potassium Dichromate, Sodium Chloride