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  • Concept of the caste system
  • Caste
  • Origin
  • Caste and class comparison
  • Features of caste
  • Caste in modern India.
  • Definition and Theory of Divine Origin
  • Social mobility - brahminisation, sanskritisation and westernization.
  1. Changes in the role and features of caste (relevant examples may be given to provide a better understanding e.g. the role of the dominant caste).
  2. Factors leading to change in the caste system: 
  • Influence of education, industrialization, urbanization, modernization, freedom struggle and the establishment of Democracy, the rise of the Non - Brahmin movement, other causes - social reform movement, threat of conversion, improvement in the status of women and rise of new  classes;
  • Social legislation {a brief mention to be made of the following Constitutional Measures: Caste Disabilities Removal Act (1872), The Hindu Marriage Act (1955), The Untouchability Offences Act (1956), Constitutional policy of protective discrimination, the Kaka Kalelkar Commission (1953), The Mandal Commission (1979)}.
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