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Asexual Reproduction in Plant

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Fragmentation:-

The organism simply breaks up into smaller pieces upon maturation. These pieces or fragments grow into new individuals. This process is known as fragmentation.

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Spore Formation:-

Sporangia which contain cells or spores that eventually develops into new individuals. Spores are very light and are covered by thick walls that protect them.

Spores germinate into new individuals on moist surfaces e.g. Rhizopus.

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Budding:-

Organisms such as Hydra use regenerative cells for reproduction in the process of budding. In Hydra, a bud develops as an outgrowth due to repeated cell division at one specific site. These buds develop into tiny individuals and when fully mature, detach from the parent body and become new independent individuals.

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Regeneration:-

Many fully differentiated organisms have the ability to give rise to new individual organisms from their body parts.

That is, if the individual is somehow cut or broken up into many pieces, many of these pieces grow into separate individuals. For example, simple animals like Hydra and Planaria can be cut into any number of pieces and each piece grows into a complete organism. This is known as regeneration.

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MODES OF REPRODUCTION:-

ASEXUAL:-

The type of reproduction in which only one parent is involved is known as asexual reproduction

The new individual formed is an identical copy of the parent

There is no formation of gametes.

No variation is seen

 

SEXUAL:-

The type of reproduction in which two parents (one male and one female) are involved to produce a new individual is known as sexual reproduction.

The offspring is genetically similar but not identical to the parent.

There is variation in the species.

 

MODES OF REPRODUCTION USED BY SINGLE ORGANISMS(Asexual reproduction):-

Fission:-

For unicellular organisms, cell division, or fission, leads to the creation of new individuals. Many different patterns of fission have been observed.

Many bacteria and protozoa simply split into two equal halves during cell division.

In organisms such as Amoeba, the splitting of the two cells during division can take place in any plane.

There are three types of Fission

Transverse Binary Fission: It is splitting of cells along any plane during division. eg.amoeba

Longitudinal Binary Fission: It is the division occurring in definite orientation in relation to the whip-like structures located at one end of the cell e.g. Leishmania.

Multiple Fission: It is the division of mother cells into many daughter cells simultaneously e.g. Plasmodium.

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Vegetative Propagation:-

  • There are many plants in which parts like the root, stem and leaves develop into new plants under appropriate conditions.
  • Buds produced in the notches along the leaf margin of Bryophyllum fall on the soil and develop into new plants
  • Different types of vegetative propagation in plants include stem cutting, grafting, layering.
  • Grafting involves fusion of tissues of one plant with those of other plants grafting is a vegetative method of propagating for apples and roses.

Advantages of vegetative propagation:-

-Plants raised by vegetative propagation can bear fruits and flowers earlier than those produced from seeds.

-All plants produced are genetically similar enough to the parent plant to have all its characteristics.

TISSUE CULTURE:-

  • In tissue culture, new plants are grown by removing tissue or separating cells from the growing tip of a plant. The cells are then placed in an artificial medium where they divide rapidly to form a small group of cells or callus.
  • The callus is transferred to another medium containing hormones for growth and differentiation.
  • The plantlets are then placed in the soil so that they can grow into mature plants.
  • Using tissue culture, many plants can be grown from one parent in disease-free conditions.
  • This technique is commonly used for ornamental plants.

description

  • Asexual Reproduction in Plant
  1. Binary fission
  2. Budding
  3. Fragmentation
  4. Spore formation
  5. Vegetative reproduction
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Shaalaa.com | Reproduction part 5 (Asexual reproduction: Fission: Binary & multiple)

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